Interaction between selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors and capsaicin-sensitive afferent sensory nerves in pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions. Role of oxidative stress.J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012 Apr; 63(2):143-51.JP
Gastric microcirculation plays an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal gastric integrity and the mechanism of injury as well as providing protection to the gastric mucosa. Disturbances in the blood perfusion, through the microcapillaries within the gastric mucosa may result in the formation of mucosal damage. Acute gastric mucosal lesions constitute an important clinical problem. Originally, one of the essential component of maintaining the gastric mucosal integrity was the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), an issue that has captured the attention of numerous investigations. PGs form due to the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme which is divided into 2 isoforms: constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) ones. The inhibition of COX-1 by SC-560, or COX-2 by rofecoxib, reduces gastric blood flow (GBF) and impairs gastric mucosal integrity. Another detrimental effect on the gastric mucosal barrier results from the ablation of sensory afferent nerves by neurotoxic doses of capsaicin. Functional ablation of the sensory afferent nerves by capsaicin attenuates GBF and also renders the gastric mucosa more susceptible to gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, aspirin and stress. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the interaction between COX specific inhibitors and afferent sensory nerves has not been extensively studied. The aim of our present study was to determine the participation of ROS in pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions in rats administered with SC-560 or rofecoxib, with or without ablation of the sensory afferent nerves. ROS were estimated by measuring the gastric mucosal tissue level of MDA and 4-HNE, the products of lipid peroxidation by ROS as well as the SOD activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, both considered to be scavengers of ROS. It was demonstrated that exposure to 3.5 h of WRS resulted in gastric lesions, causing a significant increase of MDA and 4-HNE in the gastric mucosa, accompanied by a decrease of SOD activity and mucosal GSH level. Pretreatment with COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors (SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively) aggravated the number of gastric lesions, decreased GBF, attenuated GSH level without further significant changes in MDA and 4-HNE tissue levels and SOD activity. Furthermore, the capsaicin--nactivation of sensory nerves resulted in exaggeration of gastric mucosal damage induced by WRS and this was further augmented by rofecoxib. We conclude that oxidative stress, as reflected by an increase of MDA and 4-HNE tissue concentrations (an index of lipid peroxidation), as well as decrease of SOD activity and the fall in GSH tissue level, may play an important role in the mechanism of interaction between the inhibition of COX activity and afferent sensory nerves releasing vasoactive neuropeptides. This is supported by the fact that the addition of specific COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors to animals with capsaicin denervation led to exacerbation of gastric lesions, and further fall in the antioxidizing status of gastric mucosa exposed to stress.