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Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens.
Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2012; 50:339-57.AR

Abstract

Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF; Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that hypothesis. The minute larval mandibles appear to act in a manner that is analogous to nematode stylets and the haustoria of filamentous plant pathogens. Putative effector proteins are encoded by hundreds of genes and expressed in the HF larval salivary gland. Cultivar-specific resistance (R) genes mediate a highly localized plant reaction that prevents the survival of avirulent HF larvae. Fine-scale mapping of HF avirulence (Avr) genes provides further evidence of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HF in wheat. Taken together, these discoveries suggest that the HF, and other gall midges, may be considered biotrophic, or hemibiotrophic, plant pathogens, and they demonstrate the potential that the wheat-HF interaction has in the study of insect-induced plant gall formation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2089, USA. stuartjj@purdue.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22656645

Citation

Stuart, Jeff J., et al. "Gall Midges (Hessian Flies) as Plant Pathogens." Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol. 50, 2012, pp. 339-57.
Stuart JJ, Chen MS, Shukle R, et al. Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2012;50:339-57.
Stuart, J. J., Chen, M. S., Shukle, R., & Harris, M. O. (2012). Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 50, 339-57. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095255
Stuart JJ, et al. Gall Midges (Hessian Flies) as Plant Pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2012;50:339-57. PubMed PMID: 22656645.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens. AU - Stuart,Jeff J, AU - Chen,Ming-Shun, AU - Shukle,Richard, AU - Harris,Marion O, Y1 - 2012/05/29/ PY - 2012/6/5/entrez PY - 2012/6/5/pubmed PY - 2014/8/22/medline SP - 339 EP - 57 JF - Annual review of phytopathology JO - Annu Rev Phytopathol VL - 50 N2 - Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF; Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that hypothesis. The minute larval mandibles appear to act in a manner that is analogous to nematode stylets and the haustoria of filamentous plant pathogens. Putative effector proteins are encoded by hundreds of genes and expressed in the HF larval salivary gland. Cultivar-specific resistance (R) genes mediate a highly localized plant reaction that prevents the survival of avirulent HF larvae. Fine-scale mapping of HF avirulence (Avr) genes provides further evidence of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HF in wheat. Taken together, these discoveries suggest that the HF, and other gall midges, may be considered biotrophic, or hemibiotrophic, plant pathogens, and they demonstrate the potential that the wheat-HF interaction has in the study of insect-induced plant gall formation. SN - 1545-2107 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22656645/Gall_midges__Hessian_flies__as_plant_pathogens_ L2 - https://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095255?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -