Mycoplasma pneumoniae and mucositis--part of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome spectrum.J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2012 Oct; 10(10):740-6.JD
Mycoplasma pneumoniae may induce mucosal inflammation, referred to as M. pneumoniae-associated mucositis (MPAM). There is no generally accepted definition of MPAM, since there may be mucosal lesions only, or mucosal and minimal skin lesions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We conducted a literature review of MPAM, paying particular attention to pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment decisions, and prognosis.
We identified 32 cases of MPAM (median age 13.5 years), whereof 23 patients were otherwise healthy children and young adolescents (72%). M. pneumoniae infection was associated with fever and respiratory symptoms in all calls; it was confirmed by serology (n = 30) and/or PCR (n = 9). Oral lesions were present in all cases, followed by ocular (97%) and uro-genital lesions (78%). Despite the syndrome's name postulating the absence of cutaneous involvement, minimal skin lesions occurred in 31%. Treatment regimens included systemic antibiotics (100%) and systemic anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids (31%) or immunoglobulins (9%). Macrolides were given in 81%, with failure, relapse, and/or worsening in one-third of patients. No patient suffered long-term sequelae.
MPAM is a distinct extra-pulmonary manifestation falling into the continuum of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. This entity may be due to inflammatory mechanisms suggesting that systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is even more important than antimicrobials.