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Copper toxicity in Alzheimer's disease: cognitive loss from ingestion of inorganic copper.

Abstract

In this review I present the hypothesis that a toxic substance, inorganic copper, ingested from drinking water and vitamin/mineral supplements containing inorganic copper, is at least partially causal of the epidemic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) we are seeing in developed countries. I set the stage for this hypothesis by pointing out that the epidemic is a new disease phenomenon coinciding temporally with the use of copper plumbing in developed countries. The evidence is good that AD was nonexistent or rare in the 1800 s and early 1900 s, and the arguments that elderly people did not exist in those times, or that AD was simply attributed to senility, are refuted. The web of evidence tying ingestion of inorganic copper as a causal factor in AD is strong, and includes AD animal model data where trace amounts of inorganic copper in the drinking water markedly worsened AD, human studies where ingestion of copper supplements, along with a high fat diet, is associated with a marked loss of cognition, human studies showing a markedly higher mortality in elderly women ingesting copper supplements, as well as other data. It is likely that a high fat diet works in conjunction with ingestion of inorganic copper to increase the risk of AD. It is clear that some factor toxic to the brain is present in the environment in developed countries, but not undeveloped countries, and is a major risk factor for AD. I believe that that toxic factor is ingestion of inorganic copper.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    The Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. brewergj@umich.edu

    Source

    MeSH

    Alzheimer Disease
    Cognition
    Copper
    Diet, High-Fat
    Humans
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22673823

    Citation

    Brewer, George J.. "Copper Toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease: Cognitive Loss From Ingestion of Inorganic Copper." Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology : Organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), vol. 26, no. 2-3, 2012, pp. 89-92.
    Brewer GJ. Copper toxicity in Alzheimer's disease: cognitive loss from ingestion of inorganic copper. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012;26(2-3):89-92.
    Brewer, G. J. (2012). Copper toxicity in Alzheimer's disease: cognitive loss from ingestion of inorganic copper. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology : Organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 26(2-3), pp. 89-92. doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2012.04.019.
    Brewer GJ. Copper Toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease: Cognitive Loss From Ingestion of Inorganic Copper. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012;26(2-3):89-92. PubMed PMID: 22673823.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Copper toxicity in Alzheimer's disease: cognitive loss from ingestion of inorganic copper. A1 - Brewer,George J, Y1 - 2012/06/04/ PY - 2012/02/27/received PY - 2012/04/04/accepted PY - 2012/6/8/entrez PY - 2012/6/8/pubmed PY - 2012/10/19/medline SP - 89 EP - 92 JF - Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) JO - J Trace Elem Med Biol VL - 26 IS - 2-3 N2 - In this review I present the hypothesis that a toxic substance, inorganic copper, ingested from drinking water and vitamin/mineral supplements containing inorganic copper, is at least partially causal of the epidemic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) we are seeing in developed countries. I set the stage for this hypothesis by pointing out that the epidemic is a new disease phenomenon coinciding temporally with the use of copper plumbing in developed countries. The evidence is good that AD was nonexistent or rare in the 1800 s and early 1900 s, and the arguments that elderly people did not exist in those times, or that AD was simply attributed to senility, are refuted. The web of evidence tying ingestion of inorganic copper as a causal factor in AD is strong, and includes AD animal model data where trace amounts of inorganic copper in the drinking water markedly worsened AD, human studies where ingestion of copper supplements, along with a high fat diet, is associated with a marked loss of cognition, human studies showing a markedly higher mortality in elderly women ingesting copper supplements, as well as other data. It is likely that a high fat diet works in conjunction with ingestion of inorganic copper to increase the risk of AD. It is clear that some factor toxic to the brain is present in the environment in developed countries, but not undeveloped countries, and is a major risk factor for AD. I believe that that toxic factor is ingestion of inorganic copper. SN - 1878-3252 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22673823/Copper_toxicity_in_Alzheimer's_disease:_cognitive_loss_from_ingestion_of_inorganic_copper_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0946-672X(12)00075-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -