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B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids for brain development and function: review of human studies.
Ann Nutr Metab 2012; 60(4):272-92AN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nutrition is one of many factors that affect brain development and functioning, and in recent years the role of certain nutrients has been investigated. B vitamins and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are two of the most promising and widely studied nutritional factors.

METHODS

In this review, we provide an overview of human studies published before August 2011 on how vitamin B(6), folate, vitamin B(12) and n-3 PUFA may affect the brain, their nutrient status and the existing evidence for an association between these nutrients and brain development, brain functioning and depression during different stages of the life cycle.

RESULTS

No recommendation can be given regarding a role of B vitamins, either because the number of studies on B vitamins is too limited (pregnant and lactating women and children) or the studies are not consistent (adults and elderly). For n-3 PUFA, observational evidence may be suggestive of a beneficial effect; however, this has not yet been sufficiently replicated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

CONCLUSIONS

We found that the existing evidence from observational studies as well as RCTs is generally too limited and contradictory to draw firm conclusions. More research is needed, particularly a combination of good-quality long-term prospective studies and well-designed RCTs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Ondine.vandeRest@wur.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22678093

Citation

van de Rest, Ondine, et al. "B Vitamins and N-3 Fatty Acids for Brain Development and Function: Review of Human Studies." Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 60, no. 4, 2012, pp. 272-92.
van de Rest O, van Hooijdonk LW, Doets E, et al. B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids for brain development and function: review of human studies. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):272-92.
van de Rest, O., van Hooijdonk, L. W., Doets, E., Schiepers, O. J., Eilander, A., & de Groot, L. C. (2012). B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids for brain development and function: review of human studies. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 60(4), pp. 272-92. doi:10.1159/000337945.
van de Rest O, et al. B Vitamins and N-3 Fatty Acids for Brain Development and Function: Review of Human Studies. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):272-92. PubMed PMID: 22678093.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids for brain development and function: review of human studies. AU - van de Rest,Ondine, AU - van Hooijdonk,Lenneke W A, AU - Doets,Esmée, AU - Schiepers,Olga J G, AU - Eilander,Ans, AU - de Groot,Lisette C P G M, Y1 - 2012/06/01/ PY - 2012/03/09/received PY - 2012/03/12/accepted PY - 2012/6/9/entrez PY - 2012/6/9/pubmed PY - 2012/11/7/medline SP - 272 EP - 92 JF - Annals of nutrition & metabolism JO - Ann. Nutr. Metab. VL - 60 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors that affect brain development and functioning, and in recent years the role of certain nutrients has been investigated. B vitamins and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are two of the most promising and widely studied nutritional factors. METHODS: In this review, we provide an overview of human studies published before August 2011 on how vitamin B(6), folate, vitamin B(12) and n-3 PUFA may affect the brain, their nutrient status and the existing evidence for an association between these nutrients and brain development, brain functioning and depression during different stages of the life cycle. RESULTS: No recommendation can be given regarding a role of B vitamins, either because the number of studies on B vitamins is too limited (pregnant and lactating women and children) or the studies are not consistent (adults and elderly). For n-3 PUFA, observational evidence may be suggestive of a beneficial effect; however, this has not yet been sufficiently replicated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the existing evidence from observational studies as well as RCTs is generally too limited and contradictory to draw firm conclusions. More research is needed, particularly a combination of good-quality long-term prospective studies and well-designed RCTs. SN - 1421-9697 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22678093/B_vitamins_and_n_3_fatty_acids_for_brain_development_and_function:_review_of_human_studies_ L2 - https://www.karger.com?DOI=10.1159/000337945 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -