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Cross neutralization of Afro-Asian cobra and Asian krait venoms by a Thai polyvalent snake antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom).
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(6):e1672.PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in the rural areas of Asian and African countries. To date, the only proven treatment for snake envenomation is antivenom therapy. Cross-neutralization of heterologous venoms by antivenom raised against venoms of closely related species has been reported. The present study examined the cross neutralizing potential of a newly developed polyvalent antivenom, termed Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (NPAV). NPAV was produced by immunization against 4 Thai elapid venoms.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

In vitro neutralization study using mice showed that NPAV was able to neutralize effectively the lethality of venoms of most common Asiatic cobras (Naja spp.), Ophiophagus hannah and kraits (Bungarus spp.) from Southeast Asia, but only moderately to weakly effective against venoms of Naja from India subcontinent and Africa. Studies with several venoms showed that the in vivo neutralization potency of the NPAV was comparable to the in vitro neutralization potency. NPAV could also fully protect against N. sputatrix venom-induced cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular blocking effects in anesthetized rats, demonstrating that the NPAV could neutralize most of the major lethal toxins in the Naja venom.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE

The newly developed polyvalent antivenom NPAV may find potential application in the treatment of elapid bites in Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, a neighboring nation of Thailand. Nevertheless, the applicability of NPAV in the treatment of cobra and krait envenomations in Southeast Asian victims needs to be confirmed by clinical trials. The cross-neutralization results may contribute to the design of broad-spectrum polyvalent antivenom.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22679522

Citation

Leong, Poh Kuan, et al. "Cross Neutralization of Afro-Asian Cobra and Asian Krait Venoms By a Thai Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom)." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2012, pp. e1672.
Leong PK, Sim SM, Fung SY, et al. Cross neutralization of Afro-Asian cobra and Asian krait venoms by a Thai polyvalent snake antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(6):e1672.
Leong, P. K., Sim, S. M., Fung, S. Y., Sumana, K., Sitprija, V., & Tan, N. H. (2012). Cross neutralization of Afro-Asian cobra and Asian krait venoms by a Thai polyvalent snake antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom). PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(6), e1672. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001672
Leong PK, et al. Cross Neutralization of Afro-Asian Cobra and Asian Krait Venoms By a Thai Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(6):e1672. PubMed PMID: 22679522.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cross neutralization of Afro-Asian cobra and Asian krait venoms by a Thai polyvalent snake antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom). AU - Leong,Poh Kuan, AU - Sim,Si Mui, AU - Fung,Shin Yee, AU - Sumana,Khomvilai, AU - Sitprija,Visith, AU - Tan,Nget Hong, Y1 - 2012/06/05/ PY - 2012/02/06/received PY - 2012/04/22/accepted PY - 2012/6/9/entrez PY - 2012/6/9/pubmed PY - 2012/9/29/medline SP - e1672 EP - e1672 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 6 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in the rural areas of Asian and African countries. To date, the only proven treatment for snake envenomation is antivenom therapy. Cross-neutralization of heterologous venoms by antivenom raised against venoms of closely related species has been reported. The present study examined the cross neutralizing potential of a newly developed polyvalent antivenom, termed Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (NPAV). NPAV was produced by immunization against 4 Thai elapid venoms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro neutralization study using mice showed that NPAV was able to neutralize effectively the lethality of venoms of most common Asiatic cobras (Naja spp.), Ophiophagus hannah and kraits (Bungarus spp.) from Southeast Asia, but only moderately to weakly effective against venoms of Naja from India subcontinent and Africa. Studies with several venoms showed that the in vivo neutralization potency of the NPAV was comparable to the in vitro neutralization potency. NPAV could also fully protect against N. sputatrix venom-induced cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular blocking effects in anesthetized rats, demonstrating that the NPAV could neutralize most of the major lethal toxins in the Naja venom. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed polyvalent antivenom NPAV may find potential application in the treatment of elapid bites in Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, a neighboring nation of Thailand. Nevertheless, the applicability of NPAV in the treatment of cobra and krait envenomations in Southeast Asian victims needs to be confirmed by clinical trials. The cross-neutralization results may contribute to the design of broad-spectrum polyvalent antivenom. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22679522/Cross_neutralization_of_Afro_Asian_cobra_and_Asian_krait_venoms_by_a_Thai_polyvalent_snake_antivenom__Neuro_Polyvalent_Snake_Antivenom__ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001672 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -