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Toxinology of venoms from five Australian lesser known elapid snakes.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012 Oct; 111(4):268-74.BC

Abstract

Research into Australian elapid venoms has mainly focused on the seven genera of greatest clinical significance: Acanthophis, Hoplocephalus, Notechis, Oxyuranus, Pseudechis, Pseudonaja and Tropidechis. However, even small species represent a potential for causing severe clinical envenoming. Further, owing to taxonomic distinctiveness, these species are a potential source of novel toxins for use in drug design and development. This is the first study to characterize the venoms of Cryptophis boschmai, Denisonia devisi, Echiopsis curta, Hemiaspis signata and Vermicella annulata. MALDI analysis of each venom, over the range of 4-40 kDa, indicated components in the weight range for three finger toxins (6-8 kDa) and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) ; 12-14 kDA). Interestingly, C. boschmai venom was the only venom, which contained components > 25 kDa. All venoms (10 μg/ml) demonstrated in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, with a relative rank order of: H. signata ≥ D. devisi ≥ V. annulata = E. curta > C. boschmai. CSL polyvalent antivenom neutralized the inhibitory effects of C. boschmai venom but only delayed the inhibitory effect of the other venoms. All venoms displayed PLA(2) activity but over a wide range (i.e. 1-621 μmol/min./mg). The venoms of C. boschmai (60 μg/kg, i.v.), D. devisi (60 μg/kg, i.v.) and H. signata (60 μg/kg, i.v.) produced hypotensive effects in vivo in an anaesthetized rat preparation. H. signata displayed moderate pro-coagulant activity while the other venoms were weakly pro-coagulant. This study demonstrated that these understudied Australian elapids have varying pharmacological activity, with notable in vitro neurotoxicity for four of the venoms, and may produce mild to moderate effects following systemic envenoming.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22682331

Citation

Pycroft, Kyle, et al. "Toxinology of Venoms From Five Australian Lesser Known Elapid Snakes." Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, vol. 111, no. 4, 2012, pp. 268-74.
Pycroft K, Fry BG, Isbister GK, et al. Toxinology of venoms from five Australian lesser known elapid snakes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;111(4):268-74.
Pycroft, K., Fry, B. G., Isbister, G. K., Kuruppu, S., Lawrence, J., Ian Smith, A., & Hodgson, W. C. (2012). Toxinology of venoms from five Australian lesser known elapid snakes. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 111(4), 268-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2012.00907.x
Pycroft K, et al. Toxinology of Venoms From Five Australian Lesser Known Elapid Snakes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;111(4):268-74. PubMed PMID: 22682331.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxinology of venoms from five Australian lesser known elapid snakes. AU - Pycroft,Kyle, AU - Fry,Bryan G, AU - Isbister,Geoffrey K, AU - Kuruppu,Sanjaya, AU - Lawrence,Josie, AU - Ian Smith,A, AU - Hodgson,Wayne C, Y1 - 2012/07/04/ PY - 2012/02/27/received PY - 2012/05/22/accepted PY - 2012/6/12/entrez PY - 2012/6/12/pubmed PY - 2013/2/9/medline SP - 268 EP - 74 JF - Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology JO - Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol VL - 111 IS - 4 N2 - Research into Australian elapid venoms has mainly focused on the seven genera of greatest clinical significance: Acanthophis, Hoplocephalus, Notechis, Oxyuranus, Pseudechis, Pseudonaja and Tropidechis. However, even small species represent a potential for causing severe clinical envenoming. Further, owing to taxonomic distinctiveness, these species are a potential source of novel toxins for use in drug design and development. This is the first study to characterize the venoms of Cryptophis boschmai, Denisonia devisi, Echiopsis curta, Hemiaspis signata and Vermicella annulata. MALDI analysis of each venom, over the range of 4-40 kDa, indicated components in the weight range for three finger toxins (6-8 kDa) and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) ; 12-14 kDA). Interestingly, C. boschmai venom was the only venom, which contained components > 25 kDa. All venoms (10 μg/ml) demonstrated in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, with a relative rank order of: H. signata ≥ D. devisi ≥ V. annulata = E. curta > C. boschmai. CSL polyvalent antivenom neutralized the inhibitory effects of C. boschmai venom but only delayed the inhibitory effect of the other venoms. All venoms displayed PLA(2) activity but over a wide range (i.e. 1-621 μmol/min./mg). The venoms of C. boschmai (60 μg/kg, i.v.), D. devisi (60 μg/kg, i.v.) and H. signata (60 μg/kg, i.v.) produced hypotensive effects in vivo in an anaesthetized rat preparation. H. signata displayed moderate pro-coagulant activity while the other venoms were weakly pro-coagulant. This study demonstrated that these understudied Australian elapids have varying pharmacological activity, with notable in vitro neurotoxicity for four of the venoms, and may produce mild to moderate effects following systemic envenoming. SN - 1742-7843 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22682331/Toxinology_of_venoms_from_five_Australian_lesser_known_elapid_snakes_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2012.00907.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -