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Morbidity patterns among the underweight, overweight and obese between 2 and 18 years: population-based cross-sectional analyses.

Abstract

CONTEXT

No study has documented how symptomatic morbidity varies across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) or across the entire child and adolescent age range.

OBJECTIVE

To (1) quantify physical and psychosocial morbidities experienced by 2-18-year-olds according to BMI status and (2) explore morbidity patterns by age.

DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS

Cross-sectional data from two Australian population studies (the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Health of Young Victorians Study) were collected during 2000-2006. Participants were grouped into five age bands: 2-3 (n=4606), 4-5 (n=4983), 6-7 (n=4464), 8-12 (n=1541) and 13-18 (n=928) years.

MAIN MEASURES

Outcomes-Parent- and self-reported global health; physical, psychosocial and mental health; special health-care needs; wheeze; asthma and sleep problems. Exposure-measured BMI (kg m(-2)) categorised using standard international cutpoints.

ANALYSES

The variation in comorbidities across BMI categories within and between age bands was examined using linear and logistic regression models.

RESULTS

Comorbidities varied with BMI category for all except sleep problems, generally showing the highest levels for the obese category. However, patterns differed markedly between age groups. In particular, poorer global health and special health-care needs were associated with underweight in young children, but obesity in older children. Prevalence of poorer physical health varied little by BMI in 2-5-year-olds, but from 6 to 7 years was increasingly associated with obesity. Normal-weight children tended to experience the best psychosocial and mental health, with little evidence that the U-shaped associations of these variables with BMI status varied by age. Wheeze and asthma increased slightly with BMI at all ages.

CONCLUSIONS

Deviation from normal weight is associated with health differences in children and adolescents that vary by morbidity and age. As well as lowering risks for later disease, promoting normal body weight appears central to improving the health and well-being of the young.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. melissa.wake@rch.org.au

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adolescent Health Services
    Analysis of Variance
    Asthma
    Australia
    Body Mass Index
    Child
    Child Welfare
    Child, Preschool
    Comorbidity
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Female
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Logistic Models
    Male
    Mental Health
    Obesity
    Odds Ratio
    Parents
    Sentinel Surveillance
    Sleep Wake Disorders
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Thinness

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22689070

    Citation

    Wake, M, et al. "Morbidity Patterns Among the Underweight, Overweight and Obese Between 2 and 18 Years: Population-based Cross-sectional Analyses." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 37, no. 1, 2013, pp. 86-93.
    Wake M, Clifford SA, Patton GC, et al. Morbidity patterns among the underweight, overweight and obese between 2 and 18 years: population-based cross-sectional analyses. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37(1):86-93.
    Wake, M., Clifford, S. A., Patton, G. C., Waters, E., Williams, J., Canterford, L., & Carlin, J. B. (2013). Morbidity patterns among the underweight, overweight and obese between 2 and 18 years: population-based cross-sectional analyses. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 37(1), pp. 86-93. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.86.
    Wake M, et al. Morbidity Patterns Among the Underweight, Overweight and Obese Between 2 and 18 Years: Population-based Cross-sectional Analyses. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37(1):86-93. PubMed PMID: 22689070.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Morbidity patterns among the underweight, overweight and obese between 2 and 18 years: population-based cross-sectional analyses. AU - Wake,M, AU - Clifford,S A, AU - Patton,G C, AU - Waters,E, AU - Williams,J, AU - Canterford,L, AU - Carlin,J B, Y1 - 2012/06/12/ PY - 2012/6/13/entrez PY - 2012/6/13/pubmed PY - 2013/6/26/medline SP - 86 EP - 93 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 37 IS - 1 N2 - CONTEXT: No study has documented how symptomatic morbidity varies across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) or across the entire child and adolescent age range. OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify physical and psychosocial morbidities experienced by 2-18-year-olds according to BMI status and (2) explore morbidity patterns by age. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional data from two Australian population studies (the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Health of Young Victorians Study) were collected during 2000-2006. Participants were grouped into five age bands: 2-3 (n=4606), 4-5 (n=4983), 6-7 (n=4464), 8-12 (n=1541) and 13-18 (n=928) years. MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes-Parent- and self-reported global health; physical, psychosocial and mental health; special health-care needs; wheeze; asthma and sleep problems. Exposure-measured BMI (kg m(-2)) categorised using standard international cutpoints. ANALYSES: The variation in comorbidities across BMI categories within and between age bands was examined using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Comorbidities varied with BMI category for all except sleep problems, generally showing the highest levels for the obese category. However, patterns differed markedly between age groups. In particular, poorer global health and special health-care needs were associated with underweight in young children, but obesity in older children. Prevalence of poorer physical health varied little by BMI in 2-5-year-olds, but from 6 to 7 years was increasingly associated with obesity. Normal-weight children tended to experience the best psychosocial and mental health, with little evidence that the U-shaped associations of these variables with BMI status varied by age. Wheeze and asthma increased slightly with BMI at all ages. CONCLUSIONS: Deviation from normal weight is associated with health differences in children and adolescents that vary by morbidity and age. As well as lowering risks for later disease, promoting normal body weight appears central to improving the health and well-being of the young. SN - 1476-5497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22689070/Morbidity_patterns_among_the_underweight_overweight_and_obese_between_2_and_18_years:_population_based_cross_sectional_analyses_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2012.86 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -