Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Low income and albuminuria among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study participants.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Nov; 60(5):779-86.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Albuminuria is an important risk factor for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is more prevalent in black than white adults. We sought to determine the association between low income and albuminuria and whether this association differs for blacks and whites.

STUDY DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS

9,144 black and 13,684 white US adults 45 years and older in the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

PREDICTORS

Self-reported annual household income category (≥$75,000, $35,000-$74,999, $20,000-$34,999, and <$20,000); black and white race.

OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS

Albuminuria defined as high (30-300 mg/g) or very high (>300 mg/g) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Multinomial logistic regression used to examine the race-stratified association between categories of income and albuminuria (normal, high, or very high ACR).

RESULTS

Overall, geometric mean ACR was 10.2 mg/g and was higher for blacks (11.8 mg/g) than whites (9.3 mg/g), P<0.001. Lower income was associated with a higher prevalence of albuminuria for both whites and blacks in unadjusted analyses. After adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, comorbid illnesses, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, there was a trend toward a stronger association between lower income levels and high ACR in blacks (ORs of 1.38 [95% CI, 1.07-1.77], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.05-1.75], and 1.58 [95% CI, 1.21-2.05] for income levels of $35,000-$74,999, $20,000-$34,999, and <$20,000, respectively; reference group is those with income≥$75,000) compared with whites (ORs of 0.95 [95% CI, 0.81-1.12], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.79-1.14], and 1.26 [95% CI, 1.02-1.55], respectively); P interaction=0.08 between race and income. Results were similar for very high ACR and subgroups of participants with diabetes or hypertension.

LIMITATIONS

Cross-sectional design; not all REGARDS participants provided their annual income.

CONCLUSIONS

Lower income may be associated more strongly with albuminuria in blacks than whites and may be a determinant of racial disparities in albuminuria.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. dcrews1@jhmi.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22694949

Citation

Crews, Deidra C., et al. "Low Income and Albuminuria Among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study Participants." American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation, vol. 60, no. 5, 2012, pp. 779-86.
Crews DC, McClellan WM, Shoham DA, et al. Low income and albuminuria among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study participants. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(5):779-86.
Crews, D. C., McClellan, W. M., Shoham, D. A., Gao, L., Warnock, D. G., Judd, S., Muntner, P., Miller, E. R., & Powe, N. R. (2012). Low income and albuminuria among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study participants. American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 60(5), 779-86. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.05.010
Crews DC, et al. Low Income and Albuminuria Among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study Participants. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(5):779-86. PubMed PMID: 22694949.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Low income and albuminuria among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study participants. AU - Crews,Deidra C, AU - McClellan,William M, AU - Shoham,David A, AU - Gao,Liyan, AU - Warnock,David G, AU - Judd,Suzanne, AU - Muntner,Paul, AU - Miller,Edgar R, AU - Powe,Neil R, Y1 - 2012/06/12/ PY - 2011/12/12/received PY - 2012/05/04/accepted PY - 2012/6/15/entrez PY - 2012/6/15/pubmed PY - 2013/1/1/medline SP - 779 EP - 86 JF - American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation JO - Am J Kidney Dis VL - 60 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is an important risk factor for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is more prevalent in black than white adults. We sought to determine the association between low income and albuminuria and whether this association differs for blacks and whites. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 9,144 black and 13,684 white US adults 45 years and older in the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. PREDICTORS: Self-reported annual household income category (≥$75,000, $35,000-$74,999, $20,000-$34,999, and <$20,000); black and white race. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: Albuminuria defined as high (30-300 mg/g) or very high (>300 mg/g) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Multinomial logistic regression used to examine the race-stratified association between categories of income and albuminuria (normal, high, or very high ACR). RESULTS: Overall, geometric mean ACR was 10.2 mg/g and was higher for blacks (11.8 mg/g) than whites (9.3 mg/g), P<0.001. Lower income was associated with a higher prevalence of albuminuria for both whites and blacks in unadjusted analyses. After adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, comorbid illnesses, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, there was a trend toward a stronger association between lower income levels and high ACR in blacks (ORs of 1.38 [95% CI, 1.07-1.77], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.05-1.75], and 1.58 [95% CI, 1.21-2.05] for income levels of $35,000-$74,999, $20,000-$34,999, and <$20,000, respectively; reference group is those with income≥$75,000) compared with whites (ORs of 0.95 [95% CI, 0.81-1.12], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.79-1.14], and 1.26 [95% CI, 1.02-1.55], respectively); P interaction=0.08 between race and income. Results were similar for very high ACR and subgroups of participants with diabetes or hypertension. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design; not all REGARDS participants provided their annual income. CONCLUSIONS: Lower income may be associated more strongly with albuminuria in blacks than whites and may be a determinant of racial disparities in albuminuria. SN - 1523-6838 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22694949/Low_income_and_albuminuria_among_REGARDS__Reasons_for_Geographic_and_Racial_Differences_in_Stroke__study_participants_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0272-6386(12)00769-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -