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Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have two distinct phenotypes in the developing brain: amoeboid form, known to be amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) and ramified form, known to be ramified microglial cells (RMC). The AMC are characterized by being proliferative, phagocytic and migratory whereas the RMC are quiescent and exhibit a slow turnover rate. The AMC transform into RMC with advancing age, and this transformation is indicative of the gradual shift in the microglial functions. Both AMC and RMC respond to CNS inflammation, and they become hypertrophic when activated by trauma, infection or neurodegenerative stimuli. The molecular mechanisms and functional significance of morphological transformation of microglia during normal development and in disease conditions is not clear. It is hypothesized that AMC and RMC are functionally regulated by a specific set of genes encoding various signaling molecules and transcription factors.

RESULTS

To address this, we carried out cDNA microarray analysis using lectin-labeled AMC and RMC isolated from frozen tissue sections of the corpus callosum of 5-day and 4-week old rat brain respectively, by laser capture microdissection. The global gene expression profiles of both microglial phenotypes were compared and the differentially expressed genes in AMC and RMC were clustered based on their functional annotations. This genome wide comparative analysis identified genes that are specific to AMC and RMC.

CONCLUSIONS

The novel and specific molecules identified from the trancriptome explains the quiescent state functioning of microglia in its two distinct morphological states.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Blk MD10, 4 Medical Drive, Singapore, 117597, Singapore.

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    Source

    BMC neuroscience 13: 2012 Jun 14 pg 64

    MeSH

    Age Factors
    Animals
    Animals, Newborn
    Cell Differentiation
    Cell Line, Transformed
    Cell Proliferation
    Cluster Analysis
    Corpus Callosum
    Cytokines
    Cytoskeleton
    Gene Expression Profiling
    Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
    Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2
    Laser Capture Microdissection
    Microglia
    Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein
    Nerve Tissue Proteins
    Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
    Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
    Rats
    Rats, Wistar
    Stem Cells
    Transcription Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22697290

    Citation

    Parakalan, Rangarajan, et al. "Transcriptome Analysis of Amoeboid and Ramified Microglia Isolated From the Corpus Callosum of Rat Brain." BMC Neuroscience, vol. 13, 2012, p. 64.
    Parakalan R, Jiang B, Nimmi B, et al. Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:64.
    Parakalan, R., Jiang, B., Nimmi, B., Janani, M., Jayapal, M., Lu, J., ... Dheen, S. T. (2012). Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain. BMC Neuroscience, 13, p. 64. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-13-64.
    Parakalan R, et al. Transcriptome Analysis of Amoeboid and Ramified Microglia Isolated From the Corpus Callosum of Rat Brain. BMC Neurosci. 2012 Jun 14;13:64. PubMed PMID: 22697290.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain. AU - Parakalan,Rangarajan, AU - Jiang,Boran, AU - Nimmi,Baby, AU - Janani,Manivannan, AU - Jayapal,Manikandan, AU - Lu,Jia, AU - Tay,Samuel S W, AU - Ling,Eng-Ang, AU - Dheen,S Thameem, Y1 - 2012/06/14/ PY - 2011/12/06/received PY - 2012/05/16/accepted PY - 2012/6/16/entrez PY - 2012/6/16/pubmed PY - 2012/12/15/medline SP - 64 EP - 64 JF - BMC neuroscience JO - BMC Neurosci VL - 13 N2 - BACKGROUND: Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have two distinct phenotypes in the developing brain: amoeboid form, known to be amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) and ramified form, known to be ramified microglial cells (RMC). The AMC are characterized by being proliferative, phagocytic and migratory whereas the RMC are quiescent and exhibit a slow turnover rate. The AMC transform into RMC with advancing age, and this transformation is indicative of the gradual shift in the microglial functions. Both AMC and RMC respond to CNS inflammation, and they become hypertrophic when activated by trauma, infection or neurodegenerative stimuli. The molecular mechanisms and functional significance of morphological transformation of microglia during normal development and in disease conditions is not clear. It is hypothesized that AMC and RMC are functionally regulated by a specific set of genes encoding various signaling molecules and transcription factors. RESULTS: To address this, we carried out cDNA microarray analysis using lectin-labeled AMC and RMC isolated from frozen tissue sections of the corpus callosum of 5-day and 4-week old rat brain respectively, by laser capture microdissection. The global gene expression profiles of both microglial phenotypes were compared and the differentially expressed genes in AMC and RMC were clustered based on their functional annotations. This genome wide comparative analysis identified genes that are specific to AMC and RMC. CONCLUSIONS: The novel and specific molecules identified from the trancriptome explains the quiescent state functioning of microglia in its two distinct morphological states. SN - 1471-2202 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22697290/Transcriptome_analysis_of_amoeboid_and_ramified_microglia_isolated_from_the_corpus_callosum_of_rat_brain_ L2 - https://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2202-13-64 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -