CYP3A5 polymorphism in Mexican renal transplant recipients and its association with tacrolimus dosing.Arch Med Res. 2012 May; 43(4):283-7.AM
BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Variability in CYP3A5 expression associated with differences in tacrolimus bioavailability has been documented. The wild-type allele CYP3A5*1 expresses the functional protein, whereas the CYP3A5*3 allele is a splice variant with a premature stop codon and encodes a truncated nonfunctional protein. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*3 in 291 (124 adults, 167 pediatric) Mexican renal transplant recipients, evaluate the tacrolimus dose requirements by genotype and compare genotype frequency data with that of other populations.
We carried out a multicenter study. Patients were recruited from three institutions located in Mexico City. Genotyping of the CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*3 alleles was performed by direct DNA sequencing.
Eighteen patients (6.2%) were CYP3A5*1*1 homozygous carriers or functional protein expresser homozygous, 121 patients (41.6 %) were CYP3A5*1*3 were heterozygous carriers or heterozygous expressers, and 152 patients (52.2%) were CYP3A5*3*3 homozygous carriers or homozygous nonexpressers. There was a statistically significant difference in frequency of the functional and nonfunctional expresser phenotypes from those reported for Black and Caucasian, but not for South Asian populations. The CYP3A5 phenotype had a significant impact in tacrolimus bioavailability, as wild-type carriers required higher dosing compared to mutated carriers to achieve similar drug trough levels. Patients with CYP3A5*1*1 genotype had a median dose requirement of 0.16 mg/kg/day, CYP3A5*1*3 patients had a median tacrolimus dose of 0.13 mg/kg/day and CYP3A5*3*3 had a median dose of 0.07 mg/kg/day (Kruskal-Wallis, p <0.0001).
Of the Mexican transplant recipients, 52.2% were CYP3A5*3*3 and required significantly lower tacrolimus dose than those with CYP3A5*1 allele.