Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning.
Singapore Med J 2012; 53(6):395-7SM

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

The number of cases of lead poisoning (LP), a widely known disease with various aetiologies, being reported globally has decreased over the years due to both limited domestic applications of lead and enforcement of stringent safety measures. However, a new presentation of lead poisoning, lead-contaminated opium (LCO), is gradually emerging in our region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use.

METHODS

Between November 2006 and December 2007, all patients diagnosed with LP at a central laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for potential causes of poisoning. Patients with a history of LCO abuse were evaluated and recruited for the study.

RESULTS

Overall, there were 240 patients with LP, and poisoning from LCO was diagnosed in 25 patients. The duration of addiction was between three months and 40 years, and the duration of symptoms was 28.1 ± 17.7 days. Mean blood lead levels of the patients were 145 ± 61 (range 61-323) μg/dL. The average creatinine and haemoglobin levels were 77.4 ± 8.1 μmol/L and 105 ± 25 g/L, respectively. The association between the duration of addiction and levels of lead in blood was not statistically significant (r = -0.142, p = 0.54). The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal complaints, followed by musculoskeletal complaints with muscle weakness (92%). Anorexia was also a leading complaint.

CONCLUSION

The results of our study suggest that the possibility of LP should be considered with high suspicion among opium users presenting with acute abdominal symptoms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Discipline of Surgery, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Nepean Hospital, NSW, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22711039

Citation

Meybodi, Farid Aghaee, et al. "Oral Opium: an Unusual Cause of Lead Poisoning." Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 53, no. 6, 2012, pp. 395-7.
Meybodi FA, Eslick GD, Sasani S, et al. Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning. Singapore Med J. 2012;53(6):395-7.
Meybodi, F. A., Eslick, G. D., Sasani, S., Abdolhoseyni, M., Sazegar, S., & Ebrahimi, F. (2012). Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning. Singapore Medical Journal, 53(6), pp. 395-7.
Meybodi FA, et al. Oral Opium: an Unusual Cause of Lead Poisoning. Singapore Med J. 2012;53(6):395-7. PubMed PMID: 22711039.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning. AU - Meybodi,Farid Aghaee, AU - Eslick,Guy D, AU - Sasani,Sanaz, AU - Abdolhoseyni,Mohammad, AU - Sazegar,Sasan, AU - Ebrahimi,Farzaneh, PY - 2012/6/20/entrez PY - 2012/6/20/pubmed PY - 2012/11/9/medline SP - 395 EP - 7 JF - Singapore medical journal JO - Singapore Med J VL - 53 IS - 6 N2 - INTRODUCTION: The number of cases of lead poisoning (LP), a widely known disease with various aetiologies, being reported globally has decreased over the years due to both limited domestic applications of lead and enforcement of stringent safety measures. However, a new presentation of lead poisoning, lead-contaminated opium (LCO), is gradually emerging in our region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use. METHODS: Between November 2006 and December 2007, all patients diagnosed with LP at a central laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for potential causes of poisoning. Patients with a history of LCO abuse were evaluated and recruited for the study. RESULTS: Overall, there were 240 patients with LP, and poisoning from LCO was diagnosed in 25 patients. The duration of addiction was between three months and 40 years, and the duration of symptoms was 28.1 ± 17.7 days. Mean blood lead levels of the patients were 145 ± 61 (range 61-323) μg/dL. The average creatinine and haemoglobin levels were 77.4 ± 8.1 μmol/L and 105 ± 25 g/L, respectively. The association between the duration of addiction and levels of lead in blood was not statistically significant (r = -0.142, p = 0.54). The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal complaints, followed by musculoskeletal complaints with muscle weakness (92%). Anorexia was also a leading complaint. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that the possibility of LP should be considered with high suspicion among opium users presenting with acute abdominal symptoms. SN - 0037-5675 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22711039/Oral_opium:_an_unusual_cause_of_lead_poisoning_ L2 - http://smj.sma.org.sg/5306/5306a5.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -