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[Discrimination perceived by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French results].
Encephale. 2012 Jun; 38(3):224-31.E

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

The INDIGO study (INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes) aims at assessing the impact of schizophrenic disorders diagnosis on privacy, social and professional life, in terms of discrimination. In the general population, and even among health and social professionals, erroneous negative stereotypes (double personality, dangerosity) lead to high social distance. And this has an impact on various parts of daily life: employment, housing, compliance, self-esteem… About a tenth of the adult population suffers from mental disorders at any one time. These disorders now account for about 12% of the global impact of disability, and this will rise to 15% by the year 2020. People living with schizophrenia, for example, experience reduced social participation, whilst public images of mental illness and social reactions add a dimension of suffering, which has been described as a "second illness". Stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behavior among the general population against people with severe mental illness are common in all countries. Globally, little is known of effective interventions against stigma. It is clear that the negative effects of stigma can act as formidable barriers to active recovery.

METHODOLOGY

The INDIGO study intends to establish detailed international data on how stigma and discrimination affect the lives of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The first aim of the INDIGO study is to conduct qualitative and quantitative interviews with 25 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in each participating site, to elicit information on how the condition affects their everyday lives, with a focus upon sites in Europe. The second is to gather data for all participating countries on the laws, policies and regulations which set a clear distinction between people with a diagnosis of mental illness and others, to establish an international profile of such discrimination. A new scale (Discrimination and Stigma Scale [DISC]), used in a face-to-face setting was developed. Interviewers asked service users to comment on how far their mental disorder has affected key areas of their lives, including work, marriage and partnerships, housing, leisure, and religious activities. For country-level information, staff at each national site gathered the best available data on whether special legal, policy or administrative arrangements are made for people with a diagnosis of mental illness. These items included, for example, information on access to insurance, financial services, driving licenses, voting, jury service, or travel visas. The INDIGO study is conducted within the framework of the WPA global program to fight stigma and discrimination because of schizophrenia. French interviews occurred in two sites (Lille and Nice) on a sample of 25 patients.

RESULTS

First, expressed disadvantages are high for several items (all relations, work and training, housing). In addition, we wish to highlight three specific points: almost half of the participants (46%) suffer from not being respected because of contacts with services, 88% of them felt rejected by people who know their diagnosis, and 76% hide/conceal their diagnosis. Positive experienced discrimination was rare. Two thirds of participants anticipated discrimination for job seeking and close personal relationships, sometimes with no experienced discrimination.

CONCLUSIONS

This study, one of the rare in France adopting the point of view of a stigmatized group, revealed the numerous impacts of a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders on everyday life. Comparisons between French and international results confirmed that the situation is not different in France, and even highlighted the extent of the stigmatization in the country.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre collaborateur de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé pour la recherche et la formation en santé mentale, Lille, France.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

fre

PubMed ID

22726410

Citation

Daumerie, N, et al. "[Discrimination Perceived By People With a Diagnosis of Schizophrenic Disorders. INternational Study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French Results]." L'Encephale, vol. 38, no. 3, 2012, pp. 224-31.
Daumerie N, Vasseur Bacle S, Giordana JY, et al. [Discrimination perceived by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French results]. Encephale. 2012;38(3):224-31.
Daumerie, N., Vasseur Bacle, S., Giordana, J. Y., Bourdais Mannone, C., Caria, A., & Roelandt, J. L. (2012). [Discrimination perceived by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French results]. L'Encephale, 38(3), 224-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.encep.2011.06.007
Daumerie N, et al. [Discrimination Perceived By People With a Diagnosis of Schizophrenic Disorders. INternational Study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French Results]. Encephale. 2012;38(3):224-31. PubMed PMID: 22726410.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [Discrimination perceived by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French results]. AU - Daumerie,N, AU - Vasseur Bacle,S, AU - Giordana,J-Y, AU - Bourdais Mannone,C, AU - Caria,A, AU - Roelandt,J-L, Y1 - 2011/08/31/ PY - 2010/06/02/received PY - 2011/03/29/accepted PY - 2012/6/26/entrez PY - 2012/6/26/pubmed PY - 2012/12/13/medline SP - 224 EP - 31 JF - L'Encephale JO - Encephale VL - 38 IS - 3 N2 - INTRODUCTION: The INDIGO study (INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes) aims at assessing the impact of schizophrenic disorders diagnosis on privacy, social and professional life, in terms of discrimination. In the general population, and even among health and social professionals, erroneous negative stereotypes (double personality, dangerosity) lead to high social distance. And this has an impact on various parts of daily life: employment, housing, compliance, self-esteem… About a tenth of the adult population suffers from mental disorders at any one time. These disorders now account for about 12% of the global impact of disability, and this will rise to 15% by the year 2020. People living with schizophrenia, for example, experience reduced social participation, whilst public images of mental illness and social reactions add a dimension of suffering, which has been described as a "second illness". Stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behavior among the general population against people with severe mental illness are common in all countries. Globally, little is known of effective interventions against stigma. It is clear that the negative effects of stigma can act as formidable barriers to active recovery. METHODOLOGY: The INDIGO study intends to establish detailed international data on how stigma and discrimination affect the lives of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The first aim of the INDIGO study is to conduct qualitative and quantitative interviews with 25 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in each participating site, to elicit information on how the condition affects their everyday lives, with a focus upon sites in Europe. The second is to gather data for all participating countries on the laws, policies and regulations which set a clear distinction between people with a diagnosis of mental illness and others, to establish an international profile of such discrimination. A new scale (Discrimination and Stigma Scale [DISC]), used in a face-to-face setting was developed. Interviewers asked service users to comment on how far their mental disorder has affected key areas of their lives, including work, marriage and partnerships, housing, leisure, and religious activities. For country-level information, staff at each national site gathered the best available data on whether special legal, policy or administrative arrangements are made for people with a diagnosis of mental illness. These items included, for example, information on access to insurance, financial services, driving licenses, voting, jury service, or travel visas. The INDIGO study is conducted within the framework of the WPA global program to fight stigma and discrimination because of schizophrenia. French interviews occurred in two sites (Lille and Nice) on a sample of 25 patients. RESULTS: First, expressed disadvantages are high for several items (all relations, work and training, housing). In addition, we wish to highlight three specific points: almost half of the participants (46%) suffer from not being respected because of contacts with services, 88% of them felt rejected by people who know their diagnosis, and 76% hide/conceal their diagnosis. Positive experienced discrimination was rare. Two thirds of participants anticipated discrimination for job seeking and close personal relationships, sometimes with no experienced discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: This study, one of the rare in France adopting the point of view of a stigmatized group, revealed the numerous impacts of a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders on everyday life. Comparisons between French and international results confirmed that the situation is not different in France, and even highlighted the extent of the stigmatization in the country. SN - 0013-7006 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22726410/[Discrimination_perceived_by_people_with_a_diagnosis_of_schizophrenic_disorders__INternational_study_of_DIscrimination_and_stiGma_Outcomes__INDIGO_:_French_results]_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013-7006(11)00135-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -