Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy in preschool age children with kidney calculi (including stones induced by melamine-contaminated milk powder).Pediatr Surg Int. 2012 Oct; 28(10):1021-4.PS
This study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) using ureteroscope and pneumatic intracorporeal lithotripsy in preschool age children with kidney calculi.
We studied 27 renal units in 20 patients of preschool age (≤ 6 years) who underwent mini-PCNL at our institute. The mean age was 42.6 months (range 14-68 months). The average stone burden was 1.85 cm (range 0.9-2.8 cm). Eight patients aged 14 to 58 months had been exposed to melamine-tainted powdered formula. The mini-PCNL was performed with an X-ray-guided peripheral puncture. Minimal tract dilatation was undertaken to fit a 14-16 Fr peel-away sheath. Ureteroscope and pneumatic intracorporeal lithotripsy were used to fragment the stones.
Complete clearance was achieved in 23 renal units (85.2 %) with mini-PCNL monotherapy. This has increased to 92.6 % after adjunctive ESWL. The average fall in hemoglobin was 1.28 g/dL. None of the patients required blood transfusion. The median length of hospital stay was 8.2 days. Patients were followed up every 6 months for 2 years. There has been only one recurrence of stone and no long-term complications.
Mini-PCNL is a effective treatment for pediatric kidney stones refractory to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, including stones induced by melamine-contaminated milk powder. The "mini-PCNL" technique, which uses ureteroscope and pneumatic intracorporeal lithotripsy, is a safe and feasible modality for treating renal calculi in preschool age children.