Modulation of non-voiding activity by the muscarinergic antagonist tolterodine and the β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron in conscious rats with partial outflow obstruction.BJU Int. 2012 Jul; 110(2 Pt 2):E132-42.BI
Experimental urethral obstruction in rats alters micturition patterns with non-voiding activity (NVA) during filling cystometry, showing similarity to that observed in human detrusor overactivity. Several drug classes with therapeutic potential in overactive bladder in humans have been tested in this model in rats, rabbits or guinea pigs, but no detailed analysis of drug effects on cystometric patterns has been published. The present study uses a rat model of overactivity with partial bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) in combination with the procedures to analyse NVA to study the effects of the anticholinergic drug tolterodine and the novel β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron. The current data for the first time show that NVA in rats with BOO is sensitive to both the muscarinergic antagonist tolterodine and the β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron, but with clear differences between the two drugs: during progression of bladder filling, tolterodine affected both the amplitude and frequency of NVA whereas mirabegron affected primarily the frequency. In addition, tolterodine dose-dependently reduced voiding contractions, while mirabegron did not. A model is proposed to account for these observations where both agents act on a 'pacemaker-like' mechanism which is sensitive to cholinergic excitatory and beta-adrenergic inhibitory inputs. Such concepts could provide insights into the nature of overactive bladder and the site of action of key therapeutic drugs.
To investigate the hypothesis that tolterodine and the β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron exert their actions on the motor component of the motor/sensory system in the bladder wall: non-voiding activity (NVA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study used standard cystometric techniques and a conscious rat model of partial bladder outflow obstruction (BOO). A single dose of either tolterodine (0.01, 0.1 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg) or mirabegron (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) was given i.v. to each animal.
In the dose ranges used, tolterodine reduced the voiding contraction amplitude, whereas mirabegron did not. Non-voiding activity consisted of small (<0.6 mmHg) and large (>0.6 mmHg) transients. As a fill progressed, both tolterodine and mirabegron reduced the cumulative activity of the large non-voiding contractions, but had little effect on the small transients. Tolterodine affected both the amplitude and frequency of NVA, whereas mirabegron affected primarily the frequency.
Non-voiding activity is sensitive to muscarinergic antagonists and β(3)-adrenoceptor agonists, but there are clear differences between the two drugs. A model is proposed to account for these observations where both agents act on a 'pacemaker-like' mechanism with cholinergic excitatory and adrenergic inhibitory inputs. Such concepts may provide insights into the nature of overactive bladder and the site of action of key therapeutic drugs.