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Phytonutrient intake by adults in the United States in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Individuals consuming diets dense in fruits and vegetables consume an array of phytonutrients as well as recognized nutritional components, including vitamins, minerals, and fiber. There is a growing body of evidence that phytonutrients may play positive roles in health.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this research was to estimate usual intakes of nine individual phytonutrients by Americans consuming recommended levels of fruits and vegetables compared to intakes by adults not meeting these recommendations, and to identify contributions of food sources to total phytonutrient intakes. The phytonutrients examined in this study are found predominantly in fruits and vegetables.

DESIGN

Food consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006 and phytonutrient concentration data from US Department of Agriculture databases and the published literature were used to estimate energy-adjusted usual intakes. Student's t tests were used to compare mean energy-adjusted phytonutrient intakes between subpopulations who consumed recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables vs those who did not. Percentage contributions of each phytonutrient by food source were estimated for all adults.

RESULTS

Energy-adjusted intakes of all phytonutrients other than ellagic acid were considerably higher among both men and women meeting dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetable intakes compared to those not meeting the recommendations; energy-adjusted intakes of ellagic acid were higher only among women meeting vs not meeting the recommendations. For five of the nine phytonutrients (α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, hesperetin, and ellagic acid), a single food accounted for 64% or more of the total intake of the phytonutrient.

CONCLUSIONS

Energy-adjusted intakes of carotenoids and flavonoids are higher among men and women whose diets conform to dietary guidance for fruits and vegetables. A limited number of foods provide the majority of these phytonutrients. Findings from this research provide important reference information on the phytonutrient contributions of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Exponent, Inc, 1150 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 1100, Washington, DC 20036, USA. mmurphy@exponent.com

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Antioxidants
    Carotenoids
    Cryptoxanthins
    Diet
    Ellagic Acid
    Energy Intake
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Fruit
    Guidelines as Topic
    Hesperidin
    Humans
    Interviews as Topic
    Lycopene
    Male
    Micronutrients
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    United States
    Vegetables
    Xanthophylls
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22741166

    Citation

    Murphy, Mary M., et al. "Phytonutrient Intake By Adults in the United States in Relation to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 112, no. 2, 2012, pp. 222-9.
    Murphy MM, Barraj LM, Herman D, et al. Phytonutrient intake by adults in the United States in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(2):222-9.
    Murphy, M. M., Barraj, L. M., Herman, D., Bi, X., Cheatham, R., & Randolph, R. K. (2012). Phytonutrient intake by adults in the United States in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(2), pp. 222-9.
    Murphy MM, et al. Phytonutrient Intake By Adults in the United States in Relation to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(2):222-9. PubMed PMID: 22741166.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Phytonutrient intake by adults in the United States in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption. AU - Murphy,Mary M, AU - Barraj,Leila M, AU - Herman,Dena, AU - Bi,Xiaoyu, AU - Cheatham,Rachel, AU - Randolph,R Keith, PY - 2012/6/29/entrez PY - 2012/6/29/pubmed PY - 2012/7/13/medline SP - 222 EP - 9 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 112 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Individuals consuming diets dense in fruits and vegetables consume an array of phytonutrients as well as recognized nutritional components, including vitamins, minerals, and fiber. There is a growing body of evidence that phytonutrients may play positive roles in health. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to estimate usual intakes of nine individual phytonutrients by Americans consuming recommended levels of fruits and vegetables compared to intakes by adults not meeting these recommendations, and to identify contributions of food sources to total phytonutrient intakes. The phytonutrients examined in this study are found predominantly in fruits and vegetables. DESIGN: Food consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006 and phytonutrient concentration data from US Department of Agriculture databases and the published literature were used to estimate energy-adjusted usual intakes. Student's t tests were used to compare mean energy-adjusted phytonutrient intakes between subpopulations who consumed recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables vs those who did not. Percentage contributions of each phytonutrient by food source were estimated for all adults. RESULTS: Energy-adjusted intakes of all phytonutrients other than ellagic acid were considerably higher among both men and women meeting dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetable intakes compared to those not meeting the recommendations; energy-adjusted intakes of ellagic acid were higher only among women meeting vs not meeting the recommendations. For five of the nine phytonutrients (α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, hesperetin, and ellagic acid), a single food accounted for 64% or more of the total intake of the phytonutrient. CONCLUSIONS: Energy-adjusted intakes of carotenoids and flavonoids are higher among men and women whose diets conform to dietary guidance for fruits and vegetables. A limited number of foods provide the majority of these phytonutrients. Findings from this research provide important reference information on the phytonutrient contributions of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22741166/Phytonutrient_intake_by_adults_in_the_United_States_in_relation_to_fruit_and_vegetable_consumption_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(11)01510-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -