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Reference values for lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of adults from the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 Jun; 216(3):243-9.IJ

Abstract

Human biomonitoring is an important tool for the evaluation of environmental exposure to contaminants. The data that are obtained from these studies might be compared to appropriate reference values (RVs) in a specific population. The RVs were derived from the rounded values of the upper limit of the 95th confidence interval of the 95th percentile for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood from adults in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo (MASP), Brazil to investigate the association between blood metals and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood samples from 653 nonsmoking blood donors without occupational exposure to the studied metals were collected in 2006. Our evaluations distinguished a younger group (18-39 years) and an older group (40-65 years). RVs in the younger group were 60 μgPb/L and 4 μgHg/L for men and 47 μgPb/L and 4 μgHg/L for women. RVs in the older group were 80 μgPb/L and 5 μgHg/L for men and 63 μgPb/L and 6 μgHg/L for women. The RV for Cd was 0.6 μg/L for adults aged 18-65 years. Pb and Cd levels demonstrated a significant association with sex and age. Male blood contained 50% more Pb, and the older group exhibited 23% more Pb. Fish consumption and amalgam fillings were primarily related to Hg levels. RVs for lead were similar to the Czech Republic and Germany but higher than the US population. The RV for Cd in Brazil was well below the RVs of these countries. The RVs for Hg in Brazil were similar to the US but higher than Germany and the Czech Republic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo, CETESB, Av. Prof. Frederico Hermann Jr., 345, Sao Paulo, SP 05459-900, Brazil. rkuno@terra.com.brNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22748699

Citation

Kuno, Rúbia, et al. "Reference Values for Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in the Blood of Adults From the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil." International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 216, no. 3, 2013, pp. 243-9.
Kuno R, Roquetti MH, Becker K, et al. Reference values for lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of adults from the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216(3):243-9.
Kuno, R., Roquetti, M. H., Becker, K., Seiwert, M., & Gouveia, N. (2013). Reference values for lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of adults from the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216(3), 243-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.05.010
Kuno R, et al. Reference Values for Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in the Blood of Adults From the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216(3):243-9. PubMed PMID: 22748699.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Reference values for lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of adults from the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. AU - Kuno,Rúbia, AU - Roquetti,Maria Helena, AU - Becker,Kerstin, AU - Seiwert,Margarete, AU - Gouveia,Nelson, Y1 - 2012/06/28/ PY - 2011/12/08/received PY - 2012/05/20/revised PY - 2012/05/24/accepted PY - 2012/7/4/entrez PY - 2012/7/4/pubmed PY - 2013/8/21/medline SP - 243 EP - 9 JF - International journal of hygiene and environmental health JO - Int J Hyg Environ Health VL - 216 IS - 3 N2 - Human biomonitoring is an important tool for the evaluation of environmental exposure to contaminants. The data that are obtained from these studies might be compared to appropriate reference values (RVs) in a specific population. The RVs were derived from the rounded values of the upper limit of the 95th confidence interval of the 95th percentile for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood from adults in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo (MASP), Brazil to investigate the association between blood metals and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood samples from 653 nonsmoking blood donors without occupational exposure to the studied metals were collected in 2006. Our evaluations distinguished a younger group (18-39 years) and an older group (40-65 years). RVs in the younger group were 60 μgPb/L and 4 μgHg/L for men and 47 μgPb/L and 4 μgHg/L for women. RVs in the older group were 80 μgPb/L and 5 μgHg/L for men and 63 μgPb/L and 6 μgHg/L for women. The RV for Cd was 0.6 μg/L for adults aged 18-65 years. Pb and Cd levels demonstrated a significant association with sex and age. Male blood contained 50% more Pb, and the older group exhibited 23% more Pb. Fish consumption and amalgam fillings were primarily related to Hg levels. RVs for lead were similar to the Czech Republic and Germany but higher than the US population. The RV for Cd in Brazil was well below the RVs of these countries. The RVs for Hg in Brazil were similar to the US but higher than Germany and the Czech Republic. SN - 1618-131X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22748699/Reference_values_for_lead_cadmium_and_mercury_in_the_blood_of_adults_from_the_metropolitan_area_of_Sao_Paulo_Brazil_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1438-4639(12)00084-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -