Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Mar; 75(3):645-62.BJ

Abstract

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to inhibit partly a number of aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines and T cell reactivity. In parallel, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonioc acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving resolvins and protectins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor NR1C3 (i.e. peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ) and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked. In adult humans, an EPA plus DHA intake greater than 2 g day⁻¹ seems to be required to elicit anti-inflammatory actions, but few dose finding studies have been performed. Animal models demonstrate benefit from n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in patients with RA demonstrate benefit supported by meta-analyses of the data. Clinical trails of fish oil in patients with IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, MP887 Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom. pcc@soton.ac.uk

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22765297

Citation

Calder, Philip C.. "Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes: Nutrition or Pharmacology?" British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 75, no. 3, 2013, pp. 645-62.
Calder PC. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):645-62.
Calder, P. C. (2013). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(3), 645-62. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04374.x
Calder PC. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes: Nutrition or Pharmacology. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):645-62. PubMed PMID: 22765297.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? A1 - Calder,Philip C, PY - 2012/02/03/received PY - 2012/06/11/accepted PY - 2012/7/7/entrez PY - 2012/7/7/pubmed PY - 2013/8/7/medline SP - 645 EP - 62 JF - British journal of clinical pharmacology JO - Br J Clin Pharmacol VL - 75 IS - 3 N2 - Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to inhibit partly a number of aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines and T cell reactivity. In parallel, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonioc acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving resolvins and protectins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor NR1C3 (i.e. peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ) and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked. In adult humans, an EPA plus DHA intake greater than 2 g day⁻¹ seems to be required to elicit anti-inflammatory actions, but few dose finding studies have been performed. Animal models demonstrate benefit from n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in patients with RA demonstrate benefit supported by meta-analyses of the data. Clinical trails of fish oil in patients with IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. SN - 1365-2125 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22765297/Omega_3_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_and_inflammatory_processes:_nutrition_or_pharmacology L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04374.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -