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Combining sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam or s-ketamine in laboratory mice.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2012 Mar; 51(2):209-18.JA

Abstract

Laboratory mice typically are anesthetized by either inhalation of volatile anesthetics or injection of drugs. Here we compared the acute and postanesthetic effects of combining both methods with standard inhalant monoanesthesia using sevoflurane in mice. After injection of fentanyl-midazolam or S-ketamine as premedication, a standard 50-min anesthesia was conducted by using sevoflurane. Addition of fentanyl-midazolam (0.04 mg/kg-4 mg/kg) induced sedation, attenuation of aversive behaviors at induction, shortening of the induction phase, and reduced the sevoflurane concentration required by one third (3.3% compared with 5%), compared with S-ketamine (30 mg/kg) premedication or sevoflurane alone. During anesthesia, heart rate and core body temperature were depressed significantly by both premedications but in general remained within normal ranges. In contrast, with or without premedication, substantial respiratory depression was evident, with a marked decline in respiratory rate accompanied by hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Arrhythmia, apnea, and occasionally death occurred under S-ketamine-sevoflurane. Postanesthetic telemetric measurements showed unchanged locomotor activity but elevated heart rate and core body temperature at 12 h; these changes were most prominent during sevoflurane monoanesthesia and least pronounced or absent during fentanyl-midazolam-sevoflurane. In conclusion, combining injectable and inhalant anesthetics in mice can be advantageous compared with inhalation monoanesthesia at induction and postanesthetically. However, adverse physiologic side effects during anesthesia can be exacerbated by premedications, requiring careful selection of drugs and dosages.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Zurich, Switzerland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22776121

Citation

Cesarovic, Nikola, et al. "Combining Sevoflurane Anesthesia With Fentanyl-midazolam or S-ketamine in Laboratory Mice." Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS, vol. 51, no. 2, 2012, pp. 209-18.
Cesarovic N, Jirkof P, Rettich A, et al. Combining sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam or s-ketamine in laboratory mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2012;51(2):209-18.
Cesarovic, N., Jirkof, P., Rettich, A., Nicholls, F., & Arras, M. (2012). Combining sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam or s-ketamine in laboratory mice. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS, 51(2), 209-18.
Cesarovic N, et al. Combining Sevoflurane Anesthesia With Fentanyl-midazolam or S-ketamine in Laboratory Mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2012;51(2):209-18. PubMed PMID: 22776121.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Combining sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam or s-ketamine in laboratory mice. AU - Cesarovic,Nikola, AU - Jirkof,Paulin, AU - Rettich,Andreas, AU - Nicholls,Flora, AU - Arras,Margarete, PY - 2012/7/11/entrez PY - 2012/7/11/pubmed PY - 2012/12/10/medline SP - 209 EP - 18 JF - Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS JO - J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci VL - 51 IS - 2 N2 - Laboratory mice typically are anesthetized by either inhalation of volatile anesthetics or injection of drugs. Here we compared the acute and postanesthetic effects of combining both methods with standard inhalant monoanesthesia using sevoflurane in mice. After injection of fentanyl-midazolam or S-ketamine as premedication, a standard 50-min anesthesia was conducted by using sevoflurane. Addition of fentanyl-midazolam (0.04 mg/kg-4 mg/kg) induced sedation, attenuation of aversive behaviors at induction, shortening of the induction phase, and reduced the sevoflurane concentration required by one third (3.3% compared with 5%), compared with S-ketamine (30 mg/kg) premedication or sevoflurane alone. During anesthesia, heart rate and core body temperature were depressed significantly by both premedications but in general remained within normal ranges. In contrast, with or without premedication, substantial respiratory depression was evident, with a marked decline in respiratory rate accompanied by hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Arrhythmia, apnea, and occasionally death occurred under S-ketamine-sevoflurane. Postanesthetic telemetric measurements showed unchanged locomotor activity but elevated heart rate and core body temperature at 12 h; these changes were most prominent during sevoflurane monoanesthesia and least pronounced or absent during fentanyl-midazolam-sevoflurane. In conclusion, combining injectable and inhalant anesthetics in mice can be advantageous compared with inhalation monoanesthesia at induction and postanesthetically. However, adverse physiologic side effects during anesthesia can be exacerbated by premedications, requiring careful selection of drugs and dosages. SN - 1559-6109 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22776121/Combining_sevoflurane_anesthesia_with_fentanyl_midazolam_or_s_ketamine_in_laboratory_mice_ L2 - https://www.ingentaconnect.com/openurl?genre=article&issn=1559-6109&volume=51&issue=2&spage=209&aulast=Cesarovic DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -