Ceftaroline fosamil in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.Drugs. 2012 Jul 30; 72(11):1473-93.D
Ceftaroline fosamil is a cephalosporin antibacterial approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). After intravenous administration, ceftaroline fosamil is rapidly converted to its bioactive metabolite, ceftaroline. Ceftaroline has broad-spectrum in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including contemporary resistant Gram-positive phenotypes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because of its unique spectrum of activity, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) designated ceftaroline as a member of a new subclass of β-lactam antimicrobials, cephalosporins with anti-MRSA activity. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus extends to heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate, vancomycin-intermediate, vancomycin-resistant and daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates. Ceftaroline has low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all tested species of streptococci, and has potent activity against S. pneumoniae isolates with varying degrees of penicillin resistance. The activity of ceftaroline is limited against Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and against anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis. The in vitro activity of ceftaroline includes many Gram-negative pathogens, but does not extend to bacteria that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, class B metallo-β-lactamases or AmpC cephalosporinases, or to most nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Ceftaroline fosamil has been studied for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in phase III randomized, double-blind, international, multicentre noninferiority clinical trials. Two identical trials (CANVAS 1 and CANVAS 2) compared the efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil with that of vancomycin plus aztreonam in 1378 adults with cSSSI. Results demonstrated that ceftaroline was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam, with 91.6% in the ceftaroline fosamil group (pooled analysis) achieving clinical response compared with 92.7% in the vancomycin plus aztreonam group (difference -1.1%, 95% CI -4.2, 2.0). An additional analysis evaluated clinical cure in a subgroup of patients who met the FDA guidance definition of ABSSSI at treatment day 3. Clinical response, defined as cessation of lesion spread and absence of fever, was 74.0% in the ceftaroline fosamil group compared with 66.2% in the vancomycin plus aztreonam group (treatment difference 7.8%, 95% CI 1.3, 14.0). Clinical efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil in 1240 hospitalized adults with CAP was compared with that of ceftriaxone in two additional phase III trials (FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2). Of note, because ceftriaxone does not have activity against MRSA, patients with confirmed or suspected MRSA CAP were excluded from the FOCUS trials. Results demonstrated that ceftaroline was noninferior to ceftriaxone, with 84.3% in the ceftaroline fosamil group achieving clinical cure compared with 77.7% in the ceftriaxone group (difference 6.7%, 95% CI 1.6, 11.8). An additional analysis of the trials was conducted in patients with moderate to severe CAP and at least one proven typical bacterial pathogen at baseline (i.e. CABP). Day 4 clinical response rates were 69.5% for ceftaroline and 59.4% for ceftriaxone (difference 10.1%, 95% CI -0.6, 20.6). In the phase III trials, adverse event rates were similar between groups. Overall, ceftaroline is well tolerated, which is consistent with the good safety and tolerability profile of the cephalosporin class. In summary, ceftaroline fosamil is a broad-spectrum parenteral cephalosporin with excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA, as well as many common Gram-negative organisms. It is a welcome treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP.