Spermiogenesis and ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Wardula capitellata (Digenea, Mesometridae), an intestinal parasite of the sparid teleost Sarpa salpa in Senegal.Acta Parasitol. 2012 Mar; 57(1):34-45.AP
The spermiogenesis process in Wardula capitellata begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and an intercentriolar body. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum orthogonal to a median cytoplasmic process. Later these flagella rotate and become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, which already exhibits two electron-dense areas and spinelike bodies before its proximodistal fusion with the flagella. The final stage of the spermiogenesis is characterized by the constriction of the ring of arched membranes, giving rise to the young spermatozoon, which detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of W. capitellata presents most of the classical characters reported in digenean spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different lengths of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as two lateral expansions accompanied by external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies characterize the mature sperm. Moreover, a new spermatological character is described for the first time, the so-called cytoplasmic ornamented buttons.