Upregulation of ACE2-ANG-(1-7)-Mas axis in jejunal enterocytes of type 1 diabetic rats: implications for glucose transport.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep 01; 303(5):E669-81.AJ
The inhibitory effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-ANG II-angiotensin type 1 (AT₁) receptor axis on jejunal glucose uptake and the reduced expression of this system in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have been documented previously. The ACE2-ANG-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis is thought to oppose the actions of the ACE-ANG II-AT₁ receptor axis in heart, liver, and kidney. However, the possible involvement of the ACE2-ANG-(1-7)-Mas receptor system on enhanced jejunal glucose transport in T1DM has yet to be determined. Rat everted jejunum and Caco-2 cells were used to determine the effects of ANG-(1-7) on glucose uptake and to study the ACE2-ANG-(1-7)-Mas receptor signaling pathway. Expression of target gene and protein in jejunal enterocytes and human Caco-2 cells were quantified using real-time PCR and Western blotting. T1DM increased jejunal protein and mRNA expression of ACE2 (by 59 and 173%, respectively) and Mas receptor (by 55 and 100%, respectively) in jejunum. One millimolar ANG-(1-7) reduced glucose uptake in jejunum and Caco-2 cells by 30.6 and 30.3%, respectively, effects that were abolished following addition of 1 μM A-779 (a Mas receptor blocker) or 1 μM GF-109203X (protein kinase C inhibitor) to incubation buffer for jejunum or Caco-2 cells, respectively. Finally, intravenous treatment of animals with ANG-(1-7) significantly improved oral glucose tolerance in T1DM but not control animals. In conclusion, enhanced activity of the ACE2-ANG-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis in jejunal enterocytes is likely to moderate the T1DM-induced increase in jejunal glucose uptake resulting from downregulation of the ACE-ANG II-AT₁ receptor axis. Therefore, altered activity of both ACE and ACE2 systems during diabetes will determine the overall rate of glucose transport across the jejunal epithelium.