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Testing for the effects and consequences of mid paleogene climate change on insect herbivory.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40744.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Eocene, a time of fluctuating environmental change and biome evolution, was generally driven by exceptionally warm temperatures. The Messel (47.8 Ma) and Eckfeld (44.3 Ma) deposits offer a rare opportunity to take a census of two, deep-time ecosystems occurring during a greenhouse system. An understanding of the long-term consequences of extreme warming and cooling events during this interval, particularly on angiosperms and insects that dominate terrestrial biodiversity, can provide insights into the biotic consequences of current global climatic warming.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

We compare insect-feeding damage within two middle Eocene fossil floras, Messel and Eckfeld, in Germany. From these small lake deposits, we studied 16,082 angiosperm leaves and scored each specimen for the presence or absence of 89 distinctive and diagnosable insect damage types (DTs), each of which was allocated to a major functional feeding group, including four varieties of external foliage feeding, piercing- and-sucking, leaf mining, galling, seed predation, and oviposition. Methods used for treatment of presence-absence data included general linear models and standard univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE

Our results show an unexpectedly high diversity and level of insect feeding than comparable, penecontemporaneous floras from North and South America. In addition, we found a higher level of herbivory on evergreen, rather than deciduous taxa at Messel. This pattern is explained by a ca. 2.5-fold increase in atmospheric CO(2) that overwhelmed evergreen antiherbivore defenses, subsequently lessened during the more ameliorated levels of Eckfeld times. These patterns reveal important, previously undocumented features of plant-host and insect-herbivore diversification during the European mid Eocene.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. twappler@uni-bonn.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22815805

Citation

Wappler, Torsten, et al. "Testing for the Effects and Consequences of Mid Paleogene Climate Change On Insect Herbivory." PloS One, vol. 7, no. 7, 2012, pp. e40744.
Wappler T, Labandeira CC, Rust J, et al. Testing for the effects and consequences of mid paleogene climate change on insect herbivory. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40744.
Wappler, T., Labandeira, C. C., Rust, J., Frankenhäuser, H., & Wilde, V. (2012). Testing for the effects and consequences of mid paleogene climate change on insect herbivory. PloS One, 7(7), e40744. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040744
Wappler T, et al. Testing for the Effects and Consequences of Mid Paleogene Climate Change On Insect Herbivory. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40744. PubMed PMID: 22815805.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Testing for the effects and consequences of mid paleogene climate change on insect herbivory. AU - Wappler,Torsten, AU - Labandeira,Conrad C, AU - Rust,Jes, AU - Frankenhäuser,Herbert, AU - Wilde,Volker, Y1 - 2012/07/18/ PY - 2012/02/02/received PY - 2012/06/12/accepted PY - 2012/7/21/entrez PY - 2012/7/21/pubmed PY - 2013/3/22/medline SP - e40744 EP - e40744 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 7 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: The Eocene, a time of fluctuating environmental change and biome evolution, was generally driven by exceptionally warm temperatures. The Messel (47.8 Ma) and Eckfeld (44.3 Ma) deposits offer a rare opportunity to take a census of two, deep-time ecosystems occurring during a greenhouse system. An understanding of the long-term consequences of extreme warming and cooling events during this interval, particularly on angiosperms and insects that dominate terrestrial biodiversity, can provide insights into the biotic consequences of current global climatic warming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compare insect-feeding damage within two middle Eocene fossil floras, Messel and Eckfeld, in Germany. From these small lake deposits, we studied 16,082 angiosperm leaves and scored each specimen for the presence or absence of 89 distinctive and diagnosable insect damage types (DTs), each of which was allocated to a major functional feeding group, including four varieties of external foliage feeding, piercing- and-sucking, leaf mining, galling, seed predation, and oviposition. Methods used for treatment of presence-absence data included general linear models and standard univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show an unexpectedly high diversity and level of insect feeding than comparable, penecontemporaneous floras from North and South America. In addition, we found a higher level of herbivory on evergreen, rather than deciduous taxa at Messel. This pattern is explained by a ca. 2.5-fold increase in atmospheric CO(2) that overwhelmed evergreen antiherbivore defenses, subsequently lessened during the more ameliorated levels of Eckfeld times. These patterns reveal important, previously undocumented features of plant-host and insect-herbivore diversification during the European mid Eocene. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22815805/Testing_for_the_effects_and_consequences_of_mid_paleogene_climate_change_on_insect_herbivory_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040744 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -