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Accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology and paralysis in the Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the paralyzing toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.
Mar Drugs. 2012 May; 10(5):1044-65.MD

Abstract

The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratorio de Biotoxinas Marinas, Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 811, Mazatlan, Sinaloa 82040, Mexico.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22822356

Citation

Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y., et al. "Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten Ventricosus By the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium Catenatum." Marine Drugs, vol. 10, no. 5, 2012, pp. 1044-65.
Escobedo-Lozano AY, Estrada N, Ascencio F, et al. Accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology and paralysis in the Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the paralyzing toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Mar Drugs. 2012;10(5):1044-65.
Escobedo-Lozano, A. Y., Estrada, N., Ascencio, F., Contreras, G., & Alonso-Rodriguez, R. (2012). Accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology and paralysis in the Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the paralyzing toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Marine Drugs, 10(5), 1044-65. https://doi.org/10.3390/md10051044
Escobedo-Lozano AY, et al. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten Ventricosus By the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium Catenatum. Mar Drugs. 2012;10(5):1044-65. PubMed PMID: 22822356.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology and paralysis in the Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the paralyzing toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. AU - Escobedo-Lozano,Amada Y, AU - Estrada,Norma, AU - Ascencio,Felipe, AU - Contreras,Gerardo, AU - Alonso-Rodriguez,Rosalba, Y1 - 2012/05/09/ PY - 2012/03/01/received PY - 2012/04/10/revised PY - 2012/04/18/accepted PY - 2012/7/24/entrez PY - 2012/7/24/pubmed PY - 2013/1/29/medline KW - Argopecten ventricosus KW - Gymnodinium catenatum KW - histopathology KW - paralysis KW - paralyzing shellfish poison SP - 1044 EP - 65 JF - Marine drugs JO - Mar Drugs VL - 10 IS - 5 N2 - The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment. SN - 1660-3397 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22822356/Accumulation_biotransformation_histopathology_and_paralysis_in_the_Pacific_calico_scallop_Argopecten_ventricosus_by_the_paralyzing_toxins_of_the_dinoflagellate_Gymnodinium_catenatum_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=marinedrugs-10-01044 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -