Identification of sulfoglycolipid bioactivities and characteristic fatty acids of marine macroalgae.J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Aug 29; 60(34):8404-10.JA
The fatty acid compositions of 21 species of marine macroalgae, including 5 species of Chlorophyta (green algae), 13 of Rhodophyta (red algae), and 3 of Heterokontophyta (brown algae), were collected from northeastern Taiwan to survey their functional lipids. The lipid contents of green algae ranged from 15.36 to 20.15 mg/g, dry basis (db), and were characterized by a high content of C18:2 and C18:3, red algae (18.57-28.34 mg/g db) were high in C20:4 and C20:5, and brown algae (13.11-19.56 mg/g db) were high in C18:4, C20:4, and C:20:5. All algal lipids contained fatty acids of odd-number carbons, C17:0, and C17:1. Red algae had relatively higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and were richer in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than green and brown algae. A red alga, Porphyra crispata , was extracted with ethanol and separated on a hydrophobic column (Diaion HP-20 column) to obtain sulfoglycolipids (sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, SQDGs). The main fatty acids in SQDGs were palmitic acid (C16:0), 33.3%; EPA (C20:5), 30.0%; arachidonic acid (C20:4), 12.7%; oleic acid (C18:1), 7.52%; and stearic acid (C18:0), 6.83%. The n-3/n-6 ratio was 1.9, whereas the authentic standard, spinach SQDG, did not contain n-3 fatty acids. Sulfoglycolipids inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The IC50 was 126 μg/mL, which is lower than that of the spinach SQDG (255 μg/mL).