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Inflammatory and cell-mediated immune biomarkers in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: inflammatory markers are higher in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome than in depression.
Psychother Psychosom. 2012; 81(5):286-95.PP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Depression is an inflammatory disorder while many authors declare myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) to be a functional disorder. The aim of the present study is to compare inflammatory and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses between depression and ME/CFS.

METHODS

We measured two proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in plasma, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and serum neopterin with a radioimmunoassay in controls, ME/CFS and depressive patients.

RESULTS

Plasma PICs were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression and higher in both patient groups than in controls. Increased PIC levels in depression were attributable to the presence of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms. Serum neopterin did not differ significantly between depression and ME/CFS but was higher in both patient groups than in controls. The significant positive correlations between neopterin and either IL-1 or TNF-α were significantly greater in depression than in ME/CFS.

CONCLUSIONS

Since PICs cause depression-like behaviors and fatigue/malaise, we suggest that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS and depression. Increased neopterin also seems to contribute to the pathophysiology of both disorders. This study has detected a shared 'pathway phenotype', i.e. disorders in inflammatory and CMI pathways, which underpins both ME/CFS and depression and, therefore, may explain the co-occurrence of both disorders. ME/CFS and depression are discriminated from each other by increased PICs in ME/CFS and differences in the immune cell communication networks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Maes Clinics, TRIA, Bangkok, Thailand. dr.michaelmaes @ hotmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22832503

Citation

Maes, Michael, et al. "Inflammatory and Cell-mediated Immune Biomarkers in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Depression: Inflammatory Markers Are Higher in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic Fatigue Syndrome Than in Depression." Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, vol. 81, no. 5, 2012, pp. 286-95.
Maes M, Twisk FN, Ringel K. Inflammatory and cell-mediated immune biomarkers in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: inflammatory markers are higher in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome than in depression. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81(5):286-95.
Maes, M., Twisk, F. N., & Ringel, K. (2012). Inflammatory and cell-mediated immune biomarkers in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: inflammatory markers are higher in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome than in depression. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 81(5), 286-95. https://doi.org/10.1159/000336803
Maes M, Twisk FN, Ringel K. Inflammatory and Cell-mediated Immune Biomarkers in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Depression: Inflammatory Markers Are Higher in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic Fatigue Syndrome Than in Depression. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81(5):286-95. PubMed PMID: 22832503.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Inflammatory and cell-mediated immune biomarkers in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: inflammatory markers are higher in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome than in depression. AU - Maes,Michael, AU - Twisk,Frank N M, AU - Ringel,Karl, Y1 - 2012/07/20/ PY - 2011/07/27/received PY - 2012/01/20/accepted PY - 2012/7/27/entrez PY - 2012/7/27/pubmed PY - 2013/1/9/medline SP - 286 EP - 95 JF - Psychotherapy and psychosomatics JO - Psychother Psychosom VL - 81 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Depression is an inflammatory disorder while many authors declare myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) to be a functional disorder. The aim of the present study is to compare inflammatory and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses between depression and ME/CFS. METHODS: We measured two proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in plasma, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and serum neopterin with a radioimmunoassay in controls, ME/CFS and depressive patients. RESULTS: Plasma PICs were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression and higher in both patient groups than in controls. Increased PIC levels in depression were attributable to the presence of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms. Serum neopterin did not differ significantly between depression and ME/CFS but was higher in both patient groups than in controls. The significant positive correlations between neopterin and either IL-1 or TNF-α were significantly greater in depression than in ME/CFS. CONCLUSIONS: Since PICs cause depression-like behaviors and fatigue/malaise, we suggest that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS and depression. Increased neopterin also seems to contribute to the pathophysiology of both disorders. This study has detected a shared 'pathway phenotype', i.e. disorders in inflammatory and CMI pathways, which underpins both ME/CFS and depression and, therefore, may explain the co-occurrence of both disorders. ME/CFS and depression are discriminated from each other by increased PICs in ME/CFS and differences in the immune cell communication networks. SN - 1423-0348 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22832503/Inflammatory_and_cell_mediated_immune_biomarkers_in_myalgic_encephalomyelitis/chronic_fatigue_syndrome_and_depression:_inflammatory_markers_are_higher_in_myalgic_encephalomyelitis/chronic_fatigue_syndrome_than_in_depression_ L2 - https://www.karger.com?DOI=10.1159/000336803 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -