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Excess dietary sodium and inadequate potassium intake in Italy: results of the MINISAL study.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Sep; 23(9):850-6.NM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

As excess sodium and inadequate potassium intake are causally related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the MINISAL-GIRCSI Program aimed to provide reliable estimates of dietary sodium and potassium intake in representative samples of the Italian population.

DESIGN AND METHODS

Random samples of adult population were collected from 12 Italian regions, including 1168 men and 1112 women aged 35-79 yrs. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections and creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometric indices were measured with standardised procedures.

RESULTS

The average sodium excretion was 189 mmol (or 10.9 g of salt/day) among men and 147 mmol (or 8.5 g) among women (range 27-472 and 36-471 mmol, respectively). Ninety-seven % of men and 87% of women had a consumption higher than the WHO recommended target of 5g/day. The 24 h average potassium excretion was 63 and 55 mmol, respectively (range 17-171 and 20-126 mmol), 96% of men and 99% of women having an intake lower than 100 mmol/day (European and American guideline recommendation). The mean sodium/potassium ratio was 3.1 and 2.8 respectively, i.e. over threefold greater than the desirable level of 0.85. The highest sodium intake was observed in Southern regions. Sodium and potassium excretion were both progressively higher the higher the BMI (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

These MINISAL preliminary results indicate that in all the Italian regions thus far surveyed dietary sodium intake was largely higher and potassium intake lower than the recommended intakes. They also highlight the critical association between overweight and excess salt intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cardiovascular Epidemiology Observatory, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: chiara.donfrancesco@iss.it.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22835983

Citation

Donfrancesco, C, et al. "Excess Dietary Sodium and Inadequate Potassium Intake in Italy: Results of the MINISAL Study." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 23, no. 9, 2013, pp. 850-6.
Donfrancesco C, Ippolito R, Lo Noce C, et al. Excess dietary sodium and inadequate potassium intake in Italy: results of the MINISAL study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23(9):850-6.
Donfrancesco, C., Ippolito, R., Lo Noce, C., Palmieri, L., Iacone, R., Russo, O., Vanuzzo, D., Galletti, F., Galeone, D., Giampaoli, S., & Strazzullo, P. (2013). Excess dietary sodium and inadequate potassium intake in Italy: results of the MINISAL study. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 23(9), 850-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2012.04.004
Donfrancesco C, et al. Excess Dietary Sodium and Inadequate Potassium Intake in Italy: Results of the MINISAL Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23(9):850-6. PubMed PMID: 22835983.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Excess dietary sodium and inadequate potassium intake in Italy: results of the MINISAL study. AU - Donfrancesco,C, AU - Ippolito,R, AU - Lo Noce,C, AU - Palmieri,L, AU - Iacone,R, AU - Russo,O, AU - Vanuzzo,D, AU - Galletti,F, AU - Galeone,D, AU - Giampaoli,S, AU - Strazzullo,P, Y1 - 2012/07/25/ PY - 2011/04/28/received PY - 2012/04/18/revised PY - 2012/04/18/accepted PY - 2012/7/28/entrez PY - 2012/7/28/pubmed PY - 2014/4/29/medline KW - Blood pressure KW - Cardiovascular prevention KW - Dietary potassium KW - Dietary sodium KW - Hypertension KW - MINISAL study KW - Overweight KW - Salt intake SP - 850 EP - 6 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 23 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: As excess sodium and inadequate potassium intake are causally related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the MINISAL-GIRCSI Program aimed to provide reliable estimates of dietary sodium and potassium intake in representative samples of the Italian population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Random samples of adult population were collected from 12 Italian regions, including 1168 men and 1112 women aged 35-79 yrs. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections and creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometric indices were measured with standardised procedures. RESULTS: The average sodium excretion was 189 mmol (or 10.9 g of salt/day) among men and 147 mmol (or 8.5 g) among women (range 27-472 and 36-471 mmol, respectively). Ninety-seven % of men and 87% of women had a consumption higher than the WHO recommended target of 5g/day. The 24 h average potassium excretion was 63 and 55 mmol, respectively (range 17-171 and 20-126 mmol), 96% of men and 99% of women having an intake lower than 100 mmol/day (European and American guideline recommendation). The mean sodium/potassium ratio was 3.1 and 2.8 respectively, i.e. over threefold greater than the desirable level of 0.85. The highest sodium intake was observed in Southern regions. Sodium and potassium excretion were both progressively higher the higher the BMI (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These MINISAL preliminary results indicate that in all the Italian regions thus far surveyed dietary sodium intake was largely higher and potassium intake lower than the recommended intakes. They also highlight the critical association between overweight and excess salt intake. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22835983/Excess_dietary_sodium_and_inadequate_potassium_intake_in_Italy:_results_of_the_MINISAL_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(12)00098-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -