[Upside-down stomach and hiatal hernia].Chirurgia (Bucur). 2012 May-Jun; 107(3):399-403.C
Hiatal hernias represent a special variant of diaphragmatic hernia in which there is a transdiaphragmatic migration of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus. There are 4 types admitted--sliding (type I), paraesophageal (type II), mixt-combining elements for both previous types (type III) and complex (type IV) and represents at most 5-15% from all hiatal hernias. Upside-down stomach is a special form of organoaxial volvulus of the entire stomach in a sac of mixt hiatal hernia (type III) or complex (type IV). There are asymptomatic forms, but the majority of the patients present signs of gastroesophageal reflux and up to one third may show complications such as bleeding, acute volvulus with obstruction or perforation. Surgical intervention is the only treatment option for the gastric volvulus and offers a durable resolution. The ideal surgical technique, the gold standard, consists in reduction of the stomach in the gastric lodge, resection of the sac and calibration of the hiatus adding a gastropexy or antireflux procedure.