Association of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.Br J Nutr 2012; 108(3):408-17BJ
Results from observational studies on the association of fish and n-3 fatty acid consumption with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk are conflicting. Hence, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate this association from cohort studies. A comprehensive search was then conducted to identify cohort studies on the association of fish and/or n-3 fatty acid intake with T2DM risk. In the highest v. lowest categorical analyses, the fixed or random-effect model was selected based on the homogeneity test among studies. Linear and non-linear dose-response relationships were also assessed by univariate and bivariate random-effect meta-regression with restricted maximum likelihood estimation. In the highest v. lowest categorical analyses, the pooled relative risk (RR) of T2DM for intake of fish and n-3 fatty acid was 1·146 (95 % CI 0·975, 1·346) and 1·076 (95 % CI 0·955, 1·213), respectively. In the linear dose-response relationship, the pooled RR for an increment of one time (about 105 g)/week of fish intake (four times/month) and of 0·1 g/d of n-3 fatty acid intake was 1·042 (95 % CI 1·026, 1·058) and 1·057 (95 % CI 1·042, 1·073), respectively. The significant non-linear dose-response associations of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake with T2DM risk were not observed. The present evidence from observational studies suggests that the intake of both fish and n-3 fatty acids might be weakly positively associated with the T2DM risk. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.