Potential of a γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase-stable glutathione analogue against amyloid-β toxicity.ACS Chem Neurosci 2012; 3(3):204-10AC
The antioxidant properties of glutathione (GSH) and their relevance to oxidative stress induced pathological states such as Alzheimer's disease is well-established. The utility of GSH itself as a pharmacotherapeutic agent for such disorders is limited because of the former's lability to breakdown through amide cleavage by the ubiquitous enzyme γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT). In the present study, a GSH analogue, Ψ-GSH, where the γ-glutamylcysteine amide linkage is replaced with a ureide linkage, was synthesized. Ψ-GSH was found to be stable toward γ-GT mediated breakdown. Ψ-GSH fulfilled four cardinal properties of GSH, namely, traversing across the blood brain barrier (BBB) via the GSH active uptake machinery, replacing GSH in the glyoxalase-I mediated detoxification of methylglyoxal, protecting cells against chemical oxidative insult, and finally lowering the cytotoxicity of amyloid-β peptide. These results validate Ψ-GSH as a viable metabolically stable replacement for GSH and establish it as a potential preclinical candidate for treatment of oxidative stress mediated pathology.