Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

The epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children and adults: a global perspective.
Epidemiol Rev. 1990; 12:149-78.ER

Abstract

While a number of advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in the past two decades, a number of serious questions still require urgent answers. The associations of factors such as chronic disease in adults, direct smoking, passive smoking, crowding, and breast feeding to acute respiratory infections are now well documented. Appropriate changes in public health policy need not be predicated on results from still further studies. However, in virtually all of the other areas cited in this review, further data are required. In developing countries, studies being currently conducted on vitamin A supplementation, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution will help address the most pressing issues. More studies are also needed on the relations between HIV infection and acute respiratory infections, as well as low birth weight and respiratory infection. The National Research Council studies have provided important additional data on etiologic agents in children in developing countries, but data on adult pneumonia remain sparse. In developed countries the issues that may be of greatest interest are the relation between maternal antibody levels and passive immunity in infants, the reasons for the increase in pneumonia mortality in older age groups, and the relation between air pollution and acute respiratory infections (as opposed to morbidity from bronchial reactivity). From a methodological viewpoint, the relation between previous respiratory infection (particularly in the first year of life) and subsequent acute respiratory infection morbidity has been inadequately explored. Adjustment for autocorrelation in multivariate models may be necessary if this relation is strong. Greater standardization of data collection methods in developed and developing countries also needs to be more seriously addressed. Given that some advances have been made in this area, the time may be right for development of acute symptom questionnaires, akin to the American Thoracic Society chronic respiratory questionnaire, for use in both developed and developing countries. Standardization of diaries, although somewhat more difficult, would also be extremely useful in many instances.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

2286216

Citation

Graham, N M.. "The Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children and Adults: a Global Perspective." Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 12, 1990, pp. 149-78.
Graham NM. The epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children and adults: a global perspective. Epidemiol Rev. 1990;12:149-78.
Graham, N. M. (1990). The epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children and adults: a global perspective. Epidemiologic Reviews, 12, 149-78.
Graham NM. The Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children and Adults: a Global Perspective. Epidemiol Rev. 1990;12:149-78. PubMed PMID: 2286216.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children and adults: a global perspective. A1 - Graham,N M, PY - 1990/1/1/pubmed PY - 1990/1/1/medline PY - 1990/1/1/entrez KW - Adult KW - Age Factors KW - Bacterial And Fungal Diseases--etiology KW - Behavior KW - Biology KW - Birth Weight KW - Body Weight KW - Breast Feeding KW - Child KW - Chronic Diseases KW - Climate KW - Crowding KW - Data Adjustment KW - Demographic Factors KW - Developed Countries KW - Developing Countries KW - Diseases KW - Economic Factors KW - Environment KW - Environmental Degradation KW - Environmental Pollution KW - Epidemiologic Methods KW - Geographic Factors KW - Health KW - Hiv Infections KW - Infant KW - Infant Nutrition KW - Infections--etiology KW - Literature Review KW - Low Birth Weight KW - Malnutrition KW - Nutrition KW - Nutrition Disorders KW - Physiology KW - Population KW - Population Characteristics KW - Population Density KW - Psychosocial Factors KW - Pulmonary Effects KW - Questionnaires KW - Research Methodology KW - Respiratory Insufficiency--etiology KW - Risk Factors KW - Smoking KW - Socioeconomic Factors KW - Socioeconomic Status KW - Spatial Distribution KW - Standardization KW - Viral Diseases--etiology KW - Vitamin A KW - Vitamins KW - Youth SP - 149 EP - 78 JF - Epidemiologic reviews JO - Epidemiol Rev VL - 12 N2 - While a number of advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in the past two decades, a number of serious questions still require urgent answers. The associations of factors such as chronic disease in adults, direct smoking, passive smoking, crowding, and breast feeding to acute respiratory infections are now well documented. Appropriate changes in public health policy need not be predicated on results from still further studies. However, in virtually all of the other areas cited in this review, further data are required. In developing countries, studies being currently conducted on vitamin A supplementation, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution will help address the most pressing issues. More studies are also needed on the relations between HIV infection and acute respiratory infections, as well as low birth weight and respiratory infection. The National Research Council studies have provided important additional data on etiologic agents in children in developing countries, but data on adult pneumonia remain sparse. In developed countries the issues that may be of greatest interest are the relation between maternal antibody levels and passive immunity in infants, the reasons for the increase in pneumonia mortality in older age groups, and the relation between air pollution and acute respiratory infections (as opposed to morbidity from bronchial reactivity). From a methodological viewpoint, the relation between previous respiratory infection (particularly in the first year of life) and subsequent acute respiratory infection morbidity has been inadequately explored. Adjustment for autocorrelation in multivariate models may be necessary if this relation is strong. Greater standardization of data collection methods in developed and developing countries also needs to be more seriously addressed. Given that some advances have been made in this area, the time may be right for development of acute symptom questionnaires, akin to the American Thoracic Society chronic respiratory questionnaire, for use in both developed and developing countries. Standardization of diaries, although somewhat more difficult, would also be extremely useful in many instances. SN - 0193-936X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2286216/The_epidemiology_of_acute_respiratory_infections_in_children_and_adults:_a_global_perspective_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/epirev/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a036050 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -