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Dietary patterns: a novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function in older individuals.

Abstract

Cognitive decline may lead to dementia whose most frequent cause is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the many potential risk factors of cognitive decline and AD, diet raises increasing interest. Most studies considered diet in the frame of a single nutrient approach with inconsistent results. A novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function is the use of dietary patterns. The aim of the present review was to update and complete the body of knowledge about dietary patterns in relationship with various cognitive outcomes in the elderly. Two approaches can be used: a priori and a posteriori patterns. A priori patterns are defined by the adhesion to a pre-defined healthy diet using a score such as the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score, the Healthy Eating Index, the Canadian Healthy Eating Index, the French National Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé) Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), the Recommended Food Score (RFS) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). MeDi score, RFS, PNNS-GS and DASH have been associated with lower risks of cognitive impairment, cognitive decline, and dementia or AD. Principal components analysis, reduced rank regression and clustering methods allow the identification of 'healthy' patterns associated with lower risk of cognitive decline. However, some studies did not report any associations with cognitive outcomes and results are discordant especially regarding MeDi and the risk of dementia. Several methodological challenges should be overcome to provide a higher level of evidence supporting the development of nutritional policies to prevent cognitive decline and AD.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    University of Bordeaux, ISPED, Centre INSERM U897-Epidemiologie-Biostatistique, F-33000 Bordeaux, France. benjamin.alles@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr

    , , , ,

    Source

    Nutrition research reviews 25:2 2012 Dec pg 207-22

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aging
    Alzheimer Disease
    Cognition
    Cognition Disorders
    Diet
    Diet, Mediterranean
    Female
    Food
    Health Promotion
    Humans
    Male
    Nutrition Policy
    Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22874455

    Citation

    Allès, B, et al. "Dietary Patterns: a Novel Approach to Examine the Link Between Nutrition and Cognitive Function in Older Individuals." Nutrition Research Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, 2012, pp. 207-22.
    Allès B, Samieri C, Féart C, et al. Dietary patterns: a novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function in older individuals. Nutr Res Rev. 2012;25(2):207-22.
    Allès, B., Samieri, C., Féart, C., Jutand, M. A., Laurin, D., & Barberger-Gateau, P. (2012). Dietary patterns: a novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function in older individuals. Nutrition Research Reviews, 25(2), pp. 207-22. doi:10.1017/S0954422412000133.
    Allès B, et al. Dietary Patterns: a Novel Approach to Examine the Link Between Nutrition and Cognitive Function in Older Individuals. Nutr Res Rev. 2012;25(2):207-22. PubMed PMID: 22874455.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary patterns: a novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function in older individuals. AU - Allès,B, AU - Samieri,C, AU - Féart,C, AU - Jutand,M-A, AU - Laurin,D, AU - Barberger-Gateau,P, Y1 - 2012/07/04/ PY - 2012/8/10/entrez PY - 2012/8/10/pubmed PY - 2013/5/7/medline SP - 207 EP - 22 JF - Nutrition research reviews JO - Nutr Res Rev VL - 25 IS - 2 N2 - Cognitive decline may lead to dementia whose most frequent cause is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the many potential risk factors of cognitive decline and AD, diet raises increasing interest. Most studies considered diet in the frame of a single nutrient approach with inconsistent results. A novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function is the use of dietary patterns. The aim of the present review was to update and complete the body of knowledge about dietary patterns in relationship with various cognitive outcomes in the elderly. Two approaches can be used: a priori and a posteriori patterns. A priori patterns are defined by the adhesion to a pre-defined healthy diet using a score such as the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score, the Healthy Eating Index, the Canadian Healthy Eating Index, the French National Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé) Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), the Recommended Food Score (RFS) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). MeDi score, RFS, PNNS-GS and DASH have been associated with lower risks of cognitive impairment, cognitive decline, and dementia or AD. Principal components analysis, reduced rank regression and clustering methods allow the identification of 'healthy' patterns associated with lower risk of cognitive decline. However, some studies did not report any associations with cognitive outcomes and results are discordant especially regarding MeDi and the risk of dementia. Several methodological challenges should be overcome to provide a higher level of evidence supporting the development of nutritional policies to prevent cognitive decline and AD. SN - 1475-2700 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22874455/Dietary_patterns:_a_novel_approach_to_examine_the_link_between_nutrition_and_cognitive_function_in_older_individuals_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0954422412000133/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -