Importance of surveillance for multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 and surgery in patients with sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Nov; 10(11):1262-9.CG
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare disorder characterized by gastrin-secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and gastric acid hypersecretion. There is controversy over the best way to manage these patients; we investigated outcomes of patients with different forms of the disease, who did and did not undergo surgery.
We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with ZES associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) (n = 16) and those with sporadic ZES (n = 33) seen at a tertiary care center from August 1994 to January 2012. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare survival times among groups, based on treatment with surgery (n = 34) and the presence of MEN-1 (n = 9 with surgery; n = 7 without surgery). Differences were compared using the unpaired Student t test and the Fisher exact test.
Patients with MEN-1 syndrome-associated ZES presented at a younger age than patients with sporadic ZES (34.9 vs 45.7 y, respectively; P < .05) and were diagnosed at a younger age (39.3 vs 49.7 y, respectively; P < .01), yet lived a similar number of years (55.9 vs 55.1 y, respectively; P = .91). None of the patients with MEN-1-associated ZES died of progressive disease, compared with 86% of deaths among patients with sporadic ZES (P < .05). Lymph node involvement, detected during surgery, increased the risk of metastasis to liver (P = .13) and lack of cure by surgery (P = .01). Surgery reduced all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6; P = .011) and disease-related mortality (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.84; P = .032) of patients with sporadic, but not MEN-1 syndrome-associated, ZES.
The presence of MEN-1 is associated with earlier onset and diagnosis of ZES, but a benign clinical course that rarely results in disease-related death; surgery therefore can be deferred for these patients. However, 86% of deaths among patients with sporadic ZES are attributed to disease-related causes, and mortality is reduced by early surgical intervention. Patients with sporadic ZES should undergo surgery soon after diagnosis.