Expanded mutational spectrum of the GLI3 gene substantiates genotype-phenotype correlations.J Appl Genet. 2012 Nov; 53(4):415-22.JA
Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) and isolated preaxial polydactyly type IV (PPD-IV) are rare autosomal dominant disorders, both caused by mutations in the GLI3 gene. GCPS is mainly characterised by craniofacial abnormalities (macrocephaly/prominent forehead, hypertelorism) and limb malformations, such as PPD-IV, syndactyly and postaxial polydactyly type A or B (PAPA/B). Mutations in the GLI3 gene can also lead to Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS) and isolated PAPA/B. In this study, we investigated 16 unrelated probands with the clinical diagnosis of GCPS/PPD-IV and found GLI3 mutations in 12 (75%) of them (nine familial and three sporadic cases). We also performed a detailed clinical evaluation of all 12 GLI3-positive families, with a total of 27 patients. The hallmark triad of GCPS (preaxial polydactyly, macrocephaly/prominent forehead, hypertelorism) was present in 14 cases (52%), whereas at least one typical dysmorphic feature was manifested in 17 patients (63%). Upon sequencing of the GLI3 gene, we demonstrated eight novel and two previously reported heterozygous point mutations. We also performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to screen for intragenic copy number changes and identified heterozygous deletions in the two remaining cases (16.7%). Our findings fully support previous genotype-phenotype correlations, showing that exonic deletions, missense mutations, as well as truncating variants localised out of the middle third of the GLI3 gene result in GCPS/PPD-IV and not PHS. Additionally, our study shows that intragenic GLI3 deletions may account for a significant proportion of GCPS/PPD-IV causative mutations. Therefore, we propose that MLPA or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) should be implemented into routine molecular diagnostic of the GLI3 gene.