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HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.
Sex Transm Infect. 2012 Dec; 88(8):633-8.ST

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador.

METHODS

Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV.

RESULTS

The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel.

CONCLUSIONS

We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22917694

Citation

Creswell, Jacob, et al. "HIV and STI Control in El Salvador: Results From an Integrated Behavioural Survey Among Men Who Have Sex With Men." Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 88, no. 8, 2012, pp. 633-8.
Creswell J, Guardado ME, Lee J, et al. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(8):633-8.
Creswell, J., Guardado, M. E., Lee, J., Nieto, A. I., Kim, A. A., Monterroso, E., & Paz-Bailey, G. (2012). HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 88(8), 633-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2012-050521
Creswell J, et al. HIV and STI Control in El Salvador: Results From an Integrated Behavioural Survey Among Men Who Have Sex With Men. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(8):633-8. PubMed PMID: 22917694.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men. AU - Creswell,Jacob, AU - Guardado,Maria Elena, AU - Lee,Janet, AU - Nieto,Ana Isabel, AU - Kim,Andrea A, AU - Monterroso,Edgar, AU - Paz-Bailey,Gabriela, Y1 - 2012/08/23/ PY - 2012/8/25/entrez PY - 2012/8/25/pubmed PY - 2013/2/7/medline SP - 633 EP - 8 JF - Sexually transmitted infections JO - Sex Transm Infect VL - 88 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. RESULTS: The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs. SN - 1472-3263 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22917694/HIV_and_STI_control_in_El_Salvador:_results_from_an_integrated_behavioural_survey_among_men_who_have_sex_with_men_ L2 - https://sti.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=22917694 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -