Skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal black women.Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 Nov; 91(5):316-24.CT
Black women have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels than white peers but lower bone turnover, suggesting skeletal resistance to PTH. Our objective was to determine if vitamin D supplementation (1,000 IU/day) would prevent bone loss and whether vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms modify the response. We performed a 2-year randomized, controlled, double-blind study of 1,000 IU vitamin D(3) vs. placebo in postmenopausal black women with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL (n = 103). Measurements of 25(OH)D, PTH, and bone turnover were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and genotyping was conducted using standard techniques. Spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and every 6 months. Serum 25(OH)D increased 11 ng/mL with vitamin D supplementation (p < 0.001), with no change in the placebo group. Vitamin D supplementation produced a significant decline in PTH at 3 months only, with no differences in bone turnover between placebo and vitamin D at any time point. Two-year changes in BMD were not significantly different between placebo- and vitamin D-treated black women at any skeletal site. Despite similar elevations in 25(OH)D, femoral neck BMD was only responsive to vitamin D supplementation in FF subjects (n = 47), not Ff/ff subjects (n = 31). Vitamin D supplementation does not appear to influence bone loss in black women. However, in the FF polymorphism of the VDR gene group, vitamin D supplementation may retard the higher rate of bone loss.