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Effects of saline stress on mineral composition, phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaves of artichoke and cardoon genotypes grown in floating system.
J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Mar 30; 93(5):1119-27.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cynara cardunculus is a species native to the Mediterranean basin. It includes globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon as well as their progenitor wild cardoon. The species is a source of biophenols, and its leaf extracts have been widely used in herbal medicine as hepatoprotectors and choleretics since ancient times. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the level of salinity in the nutrient solution (1 or 30 mmol L⁻¹ NaCl) on biomass production, mineral composition, radical-scavenging activity, caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in three artichoke ('Romolo', 'Violetto di Provenza' and 'Violetto di Romagna') and three cultivated cardoon ('Bianco Avorio', 'Bianco Gigante Inerme' and 'Gigante di Romagna') cultivars grown in a floating system.

RESULTS

Increased salinity in the nutrient solution decreased the leaf dry biomass and leaf number of artichoke and cultivated cardoon cultivars. Salinity reduced macro- and microelement accumulation in leaves (e.g. N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and B) but improved their antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, chlorogenic acid, cynarin and luteolin. The cultivated cardoons, especially 'Bianco Avorio' and 'Gigante di Romagna', showed higher biomass and leaf number than those observed in artichoke genotypes. 'Violetto di Provenza' exhibited the highest content of chlorogenic acid, closely followed by 'Violetto di Romagna', whereas for cynarin content the highest values were recorded in 'Violetto di Provenza', 'Bianco Avorio' and 'Gigante di Romagna'. The highest content of luteolin was recorded in 'Gigante di Romagna' and 'Bianco Avorio', while the highest content of apigenin was observed in 'Gigante di Romagna'.

CONCLUSION

The results showed that the floating system could be considered an effective tool to improve quality aspects through proper management of the salt concentration in the nutrient solution. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired profile of bioactive compounds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Agriculture, Forestry, Nature and Energy, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis snc, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy. giucolla@unitus.itNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22936423

Citation

Colla, Giuseppe, et al. "Effects of Saline Stress On Mineral Composition, Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Leaves of Artichoke and Cardoon Genotypes Grown in Floating System." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 93, no. 5, 2013, pp. 1119-27.
Colla G, Rouphael Y, Cardarelli M, et al. Effects of saline stress on mineral composition, phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaves of artichoke and cardoon genotypes grown in floating system. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(5):1119-27.
Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Svecova, E., Rea, E., & Lucini, L. (2013). Effects of saline stress on mineral composition, phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaves of artichoke and cardoon genotypes grown in floating system. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(5), 1119-27. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5861
Colla G, et al. Effects of Saline Stress On Mineral Composition, Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Leaves of Artichoke and Cardoon Genotypes Grown in Floating System. J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Mar 30;93(5):1119-27. PubMed PMID: 22936423.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of saline stress on mineral composition, phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaves of artichoke and cardoon genotypes grown in floating system. AU - Colla,Giuseppe, AU - Rouphael,Youssef, AU - Cardarelli,Mariateresa, AU - Svecova,Eva, AU - Rea,Elvira, AU - Lucini,Luigi, Y1 - 2012/08/30/ PY - 2012/05/29/received PY - 2012/07/09/revised PY - 2012/07/20/accepted PY - 2012/9/1/entrez PY - 2012/9/1/pubmed PY - 2013/10/19/medline SP - 1119 EP - 27 JF - Journal of the science of food and agriculture JO - J Sci Food Agric VL - 93 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cynara cardunculus is a species native to the Mediterranean basin. It includes globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon as well as their progenitor wild cardoon. The species is a source of biophenols, and its leaf extracts have been widely used in herbal medicine as hepatoprotectors and choleretics since ancient times. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the level of salinity in the nutrient solution (1 or 30 mmol L⁻¹ NaCl) on biomass production, mineral composition, radical-scavenging activity, caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in three artichoke ('Romolo', 'Violetto di Provenza' and 'Violetto di Romagna') and three cultivated cardoon ('Bianco Avorio', 'Bianco Gigante Inerme' and 'Gigante di Romagna') cultivars grown in a floating system. RESULTS: Increased salinity in the nutrient solution decreased the leaf dry biomass and leaf number of artichoke and cultivated cardoon cultivars. Salinity reduced macro- and microelement accumulation in leaves (e.g. N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and B) but improved their antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, chlorogenic acid, cynarin and luteolin. The cultivated cardoons, especially 'Bianco Avorio' and 'Gigante di Romagna', showed higher biomass and leaf number than those observed in artichoke genotypes. 'Violetto di Provenza' exhibited the highest content of chlorogenic acid, closely followed by 'Violetto di Romagna', whereas for cynarin content the highest values were recorded in 'Violetto di Provenza', 'Bianco Avorio' and 'Gigante di Romagna'. The highest content of luteolin was recorded in 'Gigante di Romagna' and 'Bianco Avorio', while the highest content of apigenin was observed in 'Gigante di Romagna'. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the floating system could be considered an effective tool to improve quality aspects through proper management of the salt concentration in the nutrient solution. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired profile of bioactive compounds. SN - 1097-0010 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22936423/Effects_of_saline_stress_on_mineral_composition_phenolic_acids_and_flavonoids_in_leaves_of_artichoke_and_cardoon_genotypes_grown_in_floating_system_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5861 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -