Cell-mediated non-allergic rhinitis in children.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012 Dec; 76(12):1741-5.IJ
Non-allergic rhinitis is a heterogeneous disease whose etiology is largely unknown. Nasal cytology only allows us to recognize different non-allergic rhinitis forms on the basis of the prevalent inflammatory cell infiltrate: non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils, with neutrophils, with mast-cells and with both eosinophils and mast-cells. The aim of this study is to define the incidence, clinical features and comorbidity of the different types of cell-mediated non-allergic rhinitis in a pediatric age group.
One hundred and fourteen non-allergic children with chronic nasal obstruction and associated symptoms (rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal itchiness) were retrospectively selected. All patients had been submitted to a clinical history, pediatric evaluation, anterior rhinoscopy and fiberendoscopy, rhinomanometry and nasal cytology.
Non-allergic rhinitis with neutrophils was present in 46 (40.4%) children, non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils in 53 (46.5%), non-allergic rhinitis with mast-cells in 12 (10.5%) and non-allergic rhinitis with both eosinophils and mast-cells in 3 (2.6%). Nasal obstruction was prevalent in non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils and in non-allergic rhinitis with mast-cells patients (P<0.001) whereas rhinorrea and sneezing only in the form with eosinophils (P<0.0001). Nasal itching on the other hand was prevalent in the form with mast-cells (P<0.0003). Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils group showed a higher probability of asthma (P<0.02) and respiratory sleep disorders (P<0.04).
In the pediatric age group the most frequent forms of non-allergic rhinitis are those with eosinophils or with neutrophils. A diagnosis of non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils in children presumes more severe symptoms and a higher incidence of pulmonary disease and roncopathy.