Bioelectrochemical recovery of ammonia-copper(II) complexes from wastewater using a dual chamber microbial fuel cell.Chemosphere. 2012 Nov; 89(10):1177-82.C
The cathodic reduction of complex-state copper(II) was investigated in a dual chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). The inner resistance of MFC system could be reduced in the presence of ionizing NH(4)(+), however, mass transfer was hindered at higher ammonia concentration. Thermodynamic and electrochemical analyses indicated that the processes of complex dissociation and copper reduction were governed by the ratio of T[Cu]:T[NH(3)] and the pH of solution. The reduction of Cu(NH(3))(4)(2+) could be achieved via two possible pathways: (1) releasing Cu(2+) from Cu(NH(3))(4)(2+), then reducing Cu(2+) to Cu or Cu(2)O and (2) Cu(NH(3))(4)(2+) accepting an electron and forming Cu(NH(3))(2)(+), and depositing as Cu or Cu(2)O consequently. At initial concentration of 350 mg T[Cu] L(-1), copper removal efficiency of 96% was obtained at pH=9.0 within 12 h (with △Cu/△COD=1.24), 84% was obtained at pH=3.0 within 8 h (with △Cu/△COD=1.72). Cu(NH(3))(4)(2+) was reduced as polyhedral deposits on the cathode.