Metabolomics reveals simultaneous influences of plant defence system and fungal growth in Botrytis cinerea-infected Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay berries.J Exp Bot. 2012 Oct; 63(16):5773-85.JE
Botrytis cinerea is a fungal plant pathogen of grape berries, leading to economic and quality losses in wine production. The global metabolite changes induced by B. cinerea infection in grape have not been established to date, even though B. cinerea infection is known to cause significant changes in chemicals or metabolites. In order to better understand metabolic mechanisms linked to the infection process and to identify the metabolites associated with B. cinerea infection, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used in global metabolite profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of berries from healthy and botrytized bunches. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis, revealed clear metabolic discriminations between healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches and healthy berries of healthy bunches. Significantly high levels of proline, glutamate, arginine, and alanine, which are accumulated upon plant stress, were found in healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. Moreover, largely degraded phenylpropanoids, flavonoid compounds, and sucrose together with markedly produced glycerol, gluconic acid, and succinate, all being directly associated with B. cinerea growth, were only found in botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. This study reports that B. cinerea infection causes significant metabolic changes in grape berry and highlights that both the metabolic perturbations associated with the plant defence system and those directly derived from fungal pathogen growth should be considered to better understand the interaction between metabolic variation and biotic pathogen stress in plants.