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Variation in exposure to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6-P1) across different malaria transmission settings in the western Kenya highlands.
Malar J. 2012 Sep 10; 11:318.MJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The existing metrics of malaria transmission are limited in sensitivity under low transmission intensity. Robust surveillance systems are needed as interventions to monitor reduced transmission and prevention of rapid reintroduction. Serological tools based on antibody responses to parasite and vector antigens are potential tools for transmission measurements. The current study sought to evaluate antibody responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6- P1), as a biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, in different transmission settings and seasons. The comparison between anti-MSP-1(19) IgG immune responders and non-responders allowed exploring the robustness of the gSG6-P1 peptide as a surveillance tool in an area of decreasing malaria transmission.

METHODS

Total IgG levels to gSG6-P1 were measured in an age-stratified cohort (< 5, 5-14 and ≥ 15 years) in a total of 1,366 participants from three localities in western Kenya [Kisii (hypoendemic), Kakamega (mesoendemic), and Kombewa (hyperendemic)] including 607 sera that were additionally tested for MSP-1(19) specific responses during a low and a high malaria transmission seasons. Antibody prevalence and levels were compared between localities with different transmission intensities. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between gSG6-P1 and MSP-1(19) seroprevalence and parasite prevalence.

RESULT

Seroprevalence of gSG6-P1 in the uphill population was 36% while it was 50% valley bottom (χ(2) = 13.2, df = 1, p < 0.001). Median gSG6-P1 antibody levels in the Valley bottom were twice as high as that observed in the uphill population [4.50 vs. 2.05, p < 0.001] and showed seasonal variation. The odds of gSG6-P1 seropositives having MSP-1(19) antibodies were almost three times higher than the odds of seronegatives (OR = 2.87, 95% CI [1.977, 4.176]). The observed parasite prevalence for Kisii, Kakamega and Kombewa were 4%, 19.7% and 44.6% whilst the equivalent gSG6-P1 seroprevalence were 28%, 34% and 54%, respectively.

CONCLUSION

The seroprevalence of IgG to gSG6-P1 was sensitive and robust in distinguishing between hypo, meso and hyper transmission settings and seasonal fluctuations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah, University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. kbadu@noguchi.mimcom.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22963464

Citation

Badu, Kingsley, et al. "Variation in Exposure to Anopheles Gambiae Salivary Gland Peptide (gSG6-P1) Across Different Malaria Transmission Settings in the Western Kenya Highlands." Malaria Journal, vol. 11, 2012, p. 318.
Badu K, Siangla J, Larbi J, et al. Variation in exposure to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6-P1) across different malaria transmission settings in the western Kenya highlands. Malar J. 2012;11:318.
Badu, K., Siangla, J., Larbi, J., Lawson, B. W., Afrane, Y., Ong'echa, J., Remoue, F., Zhou, G., Githeko, A. K., & Yan, G. (2012). Variation in exposure to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6-P1) across different malaria transmission settings in the western Kenya highlands. Malaria Journal, 11, 318. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-11-318
Badu K, et al. Variation in Exposure to Anopheles Gambiae Salivary Gland Peptide (gSG6-P1) Across Different Malaria Transmission Settings in the Western Kenya Highlands. Malar J. 2012 Sep 10;11:318. PubMed PMID: 22963464.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Variation in exposure to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6-P1) across different malaria transmission settings in the western Kenya highlands. AU - Badu,Kingsley, AU - Siangla,Joram, AU - Larbi,John, AU - Lawson,Bernard W, AU - Afrane,Yaw, AU - Ong'echa,John, AU - Remoue,Franck, AU - Zhou,Guofa, AU - Githeko,Andrew K, AU - Yan,Guiyun, Y1 - 2012/09/10/ PY - 2012/06/22/received PY - 2012/09/06/accepted PY - 2012/9/12/entrez PY - 2012/9/12/pubmed PY - 2013/6/7/medline SP - 318 EP - 318 JF - Malaria journal JO - Malar J VL - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: The existing metrics of malaria transmission are limited in sensitivity under low transmission intensity. Robust surveillance systems are needed as interventions to monitor reduced transmission and prevention of rapid reintroduction. Serological tools based on antibody responses to parasite and vector antigens are potential tools for transmission measurements. The current study sought to evaluate antibody responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6- P1), as a biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, in different transmission settings and seasons. The comparison between anti-MSP-1(19) IgG immune responders and non-responders allowed exploring the robustness of the gSG6-P1 peptide as a surveillance tool in an area of decreasing malaria transmission. METHODS: Total IgG levels to gSG6-P1 were measured in an age-stratified cohort (< 5, 5-14 and ≥ 15 years) in a total of 1,366 participants from three localities in western Kenya [Kisii (hypoendemic), Kakamega (mesoendemic), and Kombewa (hyperendemic)] including 607 sera that were additionally tested for MSP-1(19) specific responses during a low and a high malaria transmission seasons. Antibody prevalence and levels were compared between localities with different transmission intensities. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between gSG6-P1 and MSP-1(19) seroprevalence and parasite prevalence. RESULT: Seroprevalence of gSG6-P1 in the uphill population was 36% while it was 50% valley bottom (χ(2) = 13.2, df = 1, p < 0.001). Median gSG6-P1 antibody levels in the Valley bottom were twice as high as that observed in the uphill population [4.50 vs. 2.05, p < 0.001] and showed seasonal variation. The odds of gSG6-P1 seropositives having MSP-1(19) antibodies were almost three times higher than the odds of seronegatives (OR = 2.87, 95% CI [1.977, 4.176]). The observed parasite prevalence for Kisii, Kakamega and Kombewa were 4%, 19.7% and 44.6% whilst the equivalent gSG6-P1 seroprevalence were 28%, 34% and 54%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of IgG to gSG6-P1 was sensitive and robust in distinguishing between hypo, meso and hyper transmission settings and seasonal fluctuations. SN - 1475-2875 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22963464/Variation_in_exposure_to_Anopheles_gambiae_salivary_gland_peptide__gSG6_P1__across_different_malaria_transmission_settings_in_the_western_Kenya_highlands_ L2 - https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2875-11-318 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -