In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of Algerian Hoggar Salvadora persica L. extracts against microbial strains from children's oral cavity.J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Oct 31; 144(1):57-66.JE
Salvadora persica L. (miswak) is traditionally used to ensure oral hygiene Muslim people in developing countries where it is growing. The antibacterial properties of Salvadora persica L. originating from various geographic areas have already been reported. However, they have never been tested for samples originating from Hoggar, where extreme weather conditions could lead to different properties for this Salvadora persica L. ecotype.
AIM OF THE STUDY
To assess the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Algerian Hoggar Salvadora persica L. (miswak) on some isolated and identified strains from the oral cavity of school children aged from 6 to 12 with (n=20) and without (n=20) caries.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
After a qualitative and quantitative analysis of dental plaque samples from the selected children, the effect of methanolic extract of Hoggar miswak against oral bacterial and fungal strains isolated from the oral cavity of children with caries was tested by both agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. The stability and physicochemical parameters of Hoggar Salvadora persica L. mouthwash were also assessed compared. The in vivo antimicrobial effect of Hoggar miswak rinse on dental plaque samples was also tested over a week.
Four bacterial genera (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia and Lactobacillus) were commonly identified in all subjects at different colonization levels. A statistically significant difference in colonization levels between the two groups of children was recorded. Hoggar miswak extract more significantly inhibited the growth of Gram negative bacteria from the dental plaque than Gram positive ones. Hoggar Salvadora persica L. mouthwash was stable at 4 °C and 25 °C over the period of conservation (one week) while a temperature of 40 °C induced variations in the physicochemical parameters and considered not suitable for preservation. The in vivo study revealed a significant reduction in bacteria of the oral cavity using miswak mouthwash as compared to placebo.
Hoggar miswak extract displayed a strong antimicrobial effect both in vitro and in vivo. Its use as a mouthrinse could therefore be recommended as a preventive measure to preserve from tooth decay.