Prediction of the amount and rate of histamine degradation by diamine oxidase (DAO).Food Chem. 2012 Dec 15; 135(4):2650-60.FC
Histamine is a biogenic amine that forms in a variety of foods and can cause food poisoning at high concentrations (>500 ppm). In situations where the formation of histamine in food cannot be prevented through refrigeration, diamine oxidase (DAO) enzyme may be used to degrade histamine to safe levels. The aims of this work were to apply DAO in model (buffer) and real (cooked tuna soup used in the manufacture of a fish paste product, Rihaakuru) systems, in order to obtain predictions for the rates and amounts of histamine degradation. The two systems were set up with a constant concentration of histamine (500 mg/L) and the DAO enzyme (2534 units/L) at a temperature of 37°C, agitation at 100 rpm and an incubation time of 10h with variable pH (5-7) and salt concentrations (1-5%). A total of 15 experiments were designed for each system using central composite design (CCD). The data from these experiments were fitted into regression models; initially the data were used to generate an exponential decline model and then the data from this were fitted into a secondary response surface model (RSM) to predict the rate and amount of histamine degradation by DAO. The model system results indicated that DAO activity was not significantly affected by salt (p>0.05), and that activity reached a maximum within the pH range of 6-6.5 with an optimum at pH 6.3. However, the results obtained with the tuna soup model showed that the optimum oxidation of histamine using DAO occurred between pH 6-7 and salt 1-3%. This study defined the conditions for the use of DAO to degrade 500 mg/L of histamine in tuna soup used to manufacture Rihaakuru. The models generated could also be used to predict the rate and amount of histamine degradation in other foods that have similar characteristics to tuna soup.