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A cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians.
J Orthod. 2012 Sep; 39(3):160-9.JO

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The aims of this study were to (1) identify soft tissue cephalometric norms for horizontal lip position in an adult Nigerian population; (2) compare values for Nigerian males and females; and (3) compare Nigerian norms with established norms for Caucasians and other populations.

DESIGN

A cross-sectional descriptive study.

SETTING

Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental Clinic, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria.

PARTICIPANTS

One hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18-25 years, of Nigerian ancestry, with a normal class I occlusion and no facial asymmetry.

METHODOLOGY

Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the subjects were taken in natural head position. Radiographs were manually traced and 11 soft tissue cephalometric parameters measured. These were derived from the Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone, Merrifield and Holdaway soft tissue analyses. Male and female values were compared using Student's t-test with a level of significance at P<0·05.

RESULTS

Statistically significant differences were observed between Nigerian males and females in eight of the variables studied, with males having more protrusive upper and lower lips than the females. Variables, which did not vary by sex, were soft tissue facial angle, nose prominence and soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, Nigerian norms were higher than norms reported by Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone and Holdaway for Caucasian populations, while the Z-angle was lower than the norm established by Merrifield.

CONCLUSIONS

Gender-specific soft tissue norms for horizontal lip position should be used for orthodontic treatment planning in Nigerian subjects. Nigerians have more protrusive upper and lower lips compared to Caucasians.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Child Dental Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria. ikisiekwe@yahoo.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22984100

Citation

Ikenna Isiekwe, Gerald, et al. "A Cephalometric Investigation of Horizontal Lip Position in Adult Nigerians." Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 39, no. 3, 2012, pp. 160-9.
Ikenna Isiekwe G, Olatokunbo DaCosta O, Chukwudi Isiekwe M. A cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians. J Orthod. 2012;39(3):160-9.
Ikenna Isiekwe, G., Olatokunbo DaCosta, O., & Chukwudi Isiekwe, M. (2012). A cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians. Journal of Orthodontics, 39(3), 160-9. https://doi.org/10.1179/1465312512Z.00000000026
Ikenna Isiekwe G, Olatokunbo DaCosta O, Chukwudi Isiekwe M. A Cephalometric Investigation of Horizontal Lip Position in Adult Nigerians. J Orthod. 2012;39(3):160-9. PubMed PMID: 22984100.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians. AU - Ikenna Isiekwe,Gerald, AU - Olatokunbo DaCosta,Oluranti, AU - Chukwudi Isiekwe,Michael, PY - 2012/9/18/entrez PY - 2012/9/18/pubmed PY - 2013/4/9/medline SP - 160 EP - 9 JF - Journal of orthodontics JO - J Orthod VL - 39 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (1) identify soft tissue cephalometric norms for horizontal lip position in an adult Nigerian population; (2) compare values for Nigerian males and females; and (3) compare Nigerian norms with established norms for Caucasians and other populations. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental Clinic, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18-25 years, of Nigerian ancestry, with a normal class I occlusion and no facial asymmetry. METHODOLOGY: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the subjects were taken in natural head position. Radiographs were manually traced and 11 soft tissue cephalometric parameters measured. These were derived from the Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone, Merrifield and Holdaway soft tissue analyses. Male and female values were compared using Student's t-test with a level of significance at P<0·05. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between Nigerian males and females in eight of the variables studied, with males having more protrusive upper and lower lips than the females. Variables, which did not vary by sex, were soft tissue facial angle, nose prominence and soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, Nigerian norms were higher than norms reported by Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone and Holdaway for Caucasian populations, while the Z-angle was lower than the norm established by Merrifield. CONCLUSIONS: Gender-specific soft tissue norms for horizontal lip position should be used for orthodontic treatment planning in Nigerian subjects. Nigerians have more protrusive upper and lower lips compared to Caucasians. SN - 1465-3133 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22984100/A_cephalometric_investigation_of_horizontal_lip_position_in_adult_Nigerians_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1179/1465312512Z.00000000026?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -