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Self-relevance appraisal of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions: effects on facial electromyographic and autonomic reactions.
Emotion. 2013 Apr; 13(2):330-7.E

Abstract

What processes or mechanisms mediate interpersonal matching of facial expressions remains a debated issue. As theoretical approaches to underlying processes (i.e., automatic motor mimicry, communicative intent, and emotional appraisal) make different predictions about whether facial responses to others' facial expressions are influenced by perceived gaze behavior, we examined the impact of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions on observers' autonomic and rapid facial reactions (RFRs). We recorded facial electromyography activity over 4 muscle regions (Corrugator Supercilli, Zygomaticus Major, Lateral Frontalis, and Depressor Anguli Oris), skin conductance response and heart rate changes in participants passively exposed to virtual characters displaying approach-oriented (anger and happiness), and avoidance-oriented (fear and sadness) emotion expressions with gaze either directed at or averted from the observer. Consistent with appraisal theories, RFRs were potentiated by mutual eye contact when participants viewed happy and angry expressions, while RFRs occurred only to fear expressions with averted gaze. RFRs to sad expressions were not affected by gaze direction. The interaction between emotional expressions and gaze direction was moderated by participants' gender. The pattern of autonomic reactivity was consistent with the view that salient social stimuli increase physiological arousal and attentional resources, with gaze direction, nature of emotion, and gender having moderating effects. These results suggest the critical role of self-relevance appraisal of senders' contextual perceptual cues and individual characteristics to account for interpersonal matching of facial displays.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre des Sciences du Go슩t et de l'Alimentation, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France. robert.soussignan@u-bourgogne.frNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22985342

Citation

Soussignan, Robert, et al. "Self-relevance Appraisal of Gaze Direction and Dynamic Facial Expressions: Effects On Facial Electromyographic and Autonomic Reactions." Emotion (Washington, D.C.), vol. 13, no. 2, 2013, pp. 330-7.
Soussignan R, Chadwick M, Philip L, et al. Self-relevance appraisal of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions: effects on facial electromyographic and autonomic reactions. Emotion. 2013;13(2):330-7.
Soussignan, R., Chadwick, M., Philip, L., Conty, L., Dezecache, G., & Grèzes, J. (2013). Self-relevance appraisal of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions: effects on facial electromyographic and autonomic reactions. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 13(2), 330-7. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029892
Soussignan R, et al. Self-relevance Appraisal of Gaze Direction and Dynamic Facial Expressions: Effects On Facial Electromyographic and Autonomic Reactions. Emotion. 2013;13(2):330-7. PubMed PMID: 22985342.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Self-relevance appraisal of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions: effects on facial electromyographic and autonomic reactions. AU - Soussignan,Robert, AU - Chadwick,Michèle, AU - Philip,Léonor, AU - Conty,Laurence, AU - Dezecache,Guillaume, AU - Grèzes,Julie, Y1 - 2012/09/17/ PY - 2012/9/19/entrez PY - 2012/9/19/pubmed PY - 2013/10/29/medline SP - 330 EP - 7 JF - Emotion (Washington, D.C.) JO - Emotion VL - 13 IS - 2 N2 - What processes or mechanisms mediate interpersonal matching of facial expressions remains a debated issue. As theoretical approaches to underlying processes (i.e., automatic motor mimicry, communicative intent, and emotional appraisal) make different predictions about whether facial responses to others' facial expressions are influenced by perceived gaze behavior, we examined the impact of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions on observers' autonomic and rapid facial reactions (RFRs). We recorded facial electromyography activity over 4 muscle regions (Corrugator Supercilli, Zygomaticus Major, Lateral Frontalis, and Depressor Anguli Oris), skin conductance response and heart rate changes in participants passively exposed to virtual characters displaying approach-oriented (anger and happiness), and avoidance-oriented (fear and sadness) emotion expressions with gaze either directed at or averted from the observer. Consistent with appraisal theories, RFRs were potentiated by mutual eye contact when participants viewed happy and angry expressions, while RFRs occurred only to fear expressions with averted gaze. RFRs to sad expressions were not affected by gaze direction. The interaction between emotional expressions and gaze direction was moderated by participants' gender. The pattern of autonomic reactivity was consistent with the view that salient social stimuli increase physiological arousal and attentional resources, with gaze direction, nature of emotion, and gender having moderating effects. These results suggest the critical role of self-relevance appraisal of senders' contextual perceptual cues and individual characteristics to account for interpersonal matching of facial displays. SN - 1931-1516 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22985342/Self_relevance_appraisal_of_gaze_direction_and_dynamic_facial_expressions:_effects_on_facial_electromyographic_and_autonomic_reactions_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/emo/13/2/330 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -