Evaluation of upper respiratory tract function during strenuous exercise in racehorses.J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990 Feb 01; 196(3):431-8.JA
Forty-six racehorses with a history of poor performance underwent endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal and pharyngeal function while exercising on a high-speed treadmill. This evaluation allowed the definitive diagnosis of intermittent or continual upper respiratory tract obstruction as a cause of poor performance, as well as the documentation of the dynamic functional anatomy of the obstruction. Ten of the horses (22%) were determined to have a functional abnormality of the upper respiratory tract. These abnormalities included epiglottic entrapment (1 horse), persistent dorsal displacement of the soft palate during exercise (4 horses), and left laryngeal hemiplegia (5 horses). Thirty-two horses were observed to have signs of left laryngeal hemiparesis (asynchronous arytenoid movement) at rest that did not impair full laryngeal abduction during strenuous exercise.