Anatomic features and retrograde transvenous obliteration of duodenal varices associated with mesocaval collateral pathway.J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012 Oct; 23(10):1339-46.JV
To evaluate techniques and efficacy of retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of duodenal varices associated with mesocaval collateral pathway.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Six consecutive cases of large/growing or ruptured duodenal varices treated by retrograde transvenous obliteration were retrospectively reviewed. Selective balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) with 5% ethanolamine oleate (EO) was performed in all cases. When EO could not be sufficiently stagnated in the varices, additional/alternative techniques were performed, including coil embolization of afferent vein or intravariceal injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Clinical findings, anatomic features of duodenal varices, obliteration techniques, complications, posttherapeutic computed tomography (CT) findings, and follow-up endoscopic findings were investigated.
All duodenal varices were located at the second/third junction of the duodenum and were fed by single (n = 1) or multiple (n = 5) pancreaticoduodenal veins. One varix fed by a single afferent vein was successfully treated by simple selective B-RTO technique alone. The other five cases required coil embolization of afferent vein (n = 1) or intravariceal injection of NBCA (n = 4) because sclerosant was not sufficiently stagnated in the varices. CT 1 week after the procedure showed complete occlusion of the varices in all cases. A duodenal ulcer at the variceal site developed in one patient and was successfully treated by medication. Follow-up endoscopy showed disappearance of varices in all cases, and no recurrence was observed during follow-up.
Retrograde transvenous obliteration is an effective technique for the treatment of duodenal varices. However, additional/alternative techniques are required for successful treatment because of the complex anatomic features of duodenal varices.