Clinical significance of interleukin 33 (IL-33) in patients with eosinophilic pneumonia.Allergol Int. 2013 Mar; 62(1):45-52.AI
Interleukin 33 (IL-33) works as a functional mediator in allergic disease by enhancing the activity of eosinophils and inducing expression of T helper 2 (Th2)-associated cytokines. However, the role of IL-33 in pulmonary eosinophilia has not been elucidated. We investigated the levels of IL-33 in eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) together with associated cytokines, and discussed the clinical significance of IL-33 in EP.
Sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained from 16 patients with EP, including acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP). Twelve patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were also included for comparison. The concentration of IL-33 and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
The concentration of serum IL-33 was significantly higher in patients with AEP than in CEP. In CEP, only patients with atopic factors showed mild increase of serum IL-33. The concentration of BALF IL-33 was also significantly elevated in AEP, however, it remained quite low in CEP. Among Th2 cytokines, IL-5 was significantly increased in both serum and BALF in AEP, and the level of IL-5 was positively correlated with that of IL-33. ARDS showed no increase of serum and BALF IL-33.
The remarkable increase of BALF IL-33 in AEP indicated the local production of IL-33 in lungs. IL-33 is considered to be a local key molecule for triggering pulmonary eosinophilia, together with IL-5. BALF IL-33 appears to be a useful marker for discriminating AEP from CEP and ARDS.