Tissue Doppler imaging detects impaired biventricular performance shortly after congenital heart defect surgery.Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Mar; 34(3):630-8.PC
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with the development of a systemic inflammatory response, which can lead to myocardial damage. However, knowledge concerning the time course of ventricular performance deterioration and restoration after correction of a congenital heart defect (CHD) in pediatric patients is sparse. Therefore, the authors perioperatively quantified left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) performance using echocardiography. Their study included 141 patients (ages 0-18 years) undergoing CHD correction and 40 control subjects. The study assessed LV systolic performance (fractional shortening) and diastolic performance (mitral Doppler flow) in combination with RV systolic performance [tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)] and diastolic performance (tricuspid Doppler flow). Additionally, systolic (S') and diastolic (E', A', E/E') tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) measurements were obtained at the LV lateral wall, the interventricular septum, and the RV free wall. Echocardiographic studies were performed preoperatively, 1 day postoperatively, and at hospital discharge after 9 ± 5 days. Although all LV echocardiographic measurements showed a deterioration 1 day after surgery, only LV TDI measurements were impaired in patients at discharge versus control subjects (S': 5.7 ± 2.0 vs 7.1 ± 2.7 cm/s; E': 9.8 ± 3.9 vs 13.7 ± 5.1 cm/s; E/E': 12.2 ± 6.4 vs 8.8 ± 4.3; p < 0.05). In the RV, TAPSE and RV TDI velocities also were impaired in patients at discharge versus control subjects (TAPSE: 9 ± 3 vs 17 ± 5 mm; S': 5.2 ± 1.7 vs 11.4 ± 3.4 cm/s; E': 7.3 ± 2.5 vs 16.3 ± 5.2 cm/s; E/E': 12.5 ± 6.8 vs 4.8 ± 1.9; p < 0.05). Furthermore, longer aortic cross-clamp times were associated with more impaired postoperative LV and RV performance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both systolic and diastolic biventricular performances were impaired shortly after CHD correction. This impairment was detected only by TDI parameters and TAPSE. Furthermore, a longer-lasting negative influence of cardiopulmonary bypass on myocardial performance was suggested.