Intimate partner violence and HIV risk factors among African-American and African-Caribbean women in clinic-based settings.AIDS Care. 2013; 25(4):472-80.AC
Despite progress against intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV/AIDS in the past two decades, both epidemics remain major public health problems, particularly among women of color. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between recent IPV and HIV risk factors (sexual and drug risk behaviors, sexually transmitted infections [STIs], condom use, and negotiation) among women of African descent. We conducted a comparative case-control study in women's health clinics in Baltimore, MD, USA and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women aged 18-55 years who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV in the past two years (Baltimore, n=107; USVI, n=235) were compared to women who never experienced any form of abuse (Baltimore, n=207; USVI, n=119). Logistic regression identified correlates of recent IPV by site. In both sites, having a partner with concurrent sex partners was independently associated with a history of recent IPV (Baltimore, AOR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.79-8.55 and USVI, AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.11-4.56). In Baltimore, factors independently associated with recent IPV were lifetime casual sex partners (AOR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11-3.57), exchange sex partners (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI: 1.92-14.42), infrequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.08-0.72), and infrequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09-0.93). In contrast, in the USVI, having a concurrent sex partner (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.46-7.60), frequent condom use during vaginal sex (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.06-3.65), frequent condom use during anal sex (AOR: 6.29, 95% CI: 1.57-25.23), drug use (AOR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.00-10.06), and a past-year STI (AOR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.25-5.72) were associated with recent IPV history. The divergent results by site warrant further investigation into the potential influence of culture, norms, and intentions on the relationships examined. Nonetheless, study findings support a critical need to continue the development and implementation of culturally tailored screening for IPV within HIV prevention and treatment programs.